Hypovitaminosis D is increasingly recognized as a cofactor in several diseases. In addition to bone homeostasis, vitamin D status influences immune system, muscle activity and cell differentiation in different tissues. Vitamin D is produced in the skin upon exposure to UVB rays, and sufficient levels of serum 25(OH)D are dependent mostly on adequate sun exposure, and then on specific physiologic variables, including skin type, age and Body Mass Index (BMI). In contrast with common belief, epidemiologic data are demonstrating that hypovitaminosis D must be a clinical concern not only in northern Countries. In our study, we investigated vitamin D status in a male population enrolled in a urology clinic of central Italy. In addition, we evaluated the correlation between vitamin D status and UVB irradiance measured in our region. The two principal pathologies in the 95 enrolled patients (mean age 66 years) were benign prostate hypertrophy and prostate carcinoma. > 50% of patients had serum 25(OH)D values in the deficient range (< 20 ng/mL), and only 16% of cases had serum vitamin D concentration higher than 30 ng/mL (optimal range). The seasonal stratification of vitamin D concentrations revealed an evident trend with the minimum mean value recorded in April and a maximum mean value obtained in September. UVB irradiance measured by pyranometer in our region (Abruzzo, central Italy) revealed a large difference during the year, with winter months characterized by an UV irradiance about tenfold lower than summer months. Then we applied a mathematical model in order to evaluate the expected vitamin D production according to the standard erythemal dose measured in the different seasons. In winter months, the low available UVB radiation and the small exposed skin area resulted not sufficient to obtain the recommended serum doses of vitamin D. Although in summer months UVB irradiance was largely in excess to produce vitamin D in the skin, serum vitamin D resulted sufficient in September only in those patients who declared an outdoor time of at least 3 h per day in the previous summer. In conclusion, hypovitaminosis D is largely represented in elderly persons in our region. Seasonal fluctuation in serum 25(OH)D was explained by a reduced availability of UVB in winter and by insufficient solar exposure in summer. The relatively high outdoor time that emerged to be correlated with sufficient serum 25(OH)D in autumn warrants further studies to individuate potential risk co-variables for hypovitaminosis D in elderly men.
|Titolo:||Serum 25(OH)D seasonality in urologic patients from central Italy|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2016|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|