Background. RecA is a bacterial multifunctional protein essential to genetic recombination, error-prone replicative bypass of DNA damages and regulation of SOS response. The activation of bacterial SOS response is directly related to the development of intrinsic and/or acquired resistance to antimicrobials. Although recent studies directed towards RecA inactivation via ATP binding inhibition described a variety of micromolar affinity ligands, inhibitors of the DNA binding site are still unknown. Purpose. Twenty-seven secondary metabolites classified as anthraquinones, depsides, depsidones, dibenzofurans, diphenyl-butenolides, paraconic acids, pseudo-depsidones, triterpenes and xanthones, were investigated for their ability to inhibit RecA from Escherichia coli. They were isolated in various Chilean regions from 14 families and 19 genera of lichens. Methods. The ATP hydrolytic activity of RecA was quantified detecting the generation of free phosphate in solution. The percentage of inhibition was calculated fixing at 100 µM the concentration of the compounds. Deeper investigations were reserved to those compounds showing an inhibition higher than 80%. To clarify the mechanism of inhibition, the semi-log plot of the percentage of inhibition vs. ATP and vs. ssDNA, was evaluated. Results. Only nine compounds showed a percentage of RecA inhibition higher than 80% (divaricatic, perlatolic, alpha-collatolic, lobaric, lichesterinic, protolichesterinic, epiphorellic acids, sphaerophorin and tumidulin). The half-inhibitory concentrations (IC50) calculated for these compounds were ranging from 14.2 µM for protolichesterinic acid to 42.6 µM for sphaerophorin. Investigations on the mechanism of inhibition showed that all compounds behaved as uncompetitive inhibitors for ATP binding site, with the exception of epiphorellic acid which clearly acted as non-competitive inhibitor of the ATP site. Further investigations demonstrated that epiphorellic acid competitively binds the ssDNA binding site. Kinetic data were confirmed by molecular modelling binding predictions which shows that epiphorellic acid is expected to bind the ssDNA site into the L2 loop of RecA protein. Conclusion. In this paper the first RecA ssDNA binding site ligand is described. Our study sets epiphorellic acid as a promising hit for the development of more effective RecA inhibitors. In our drug discovery approach, natural products in general and lichen in particular, represent a successful source of active ligands and structural diversity.
|Titolo:||SOS response in bacteria: Inhibitory activity of lichen secondary metabolites against Escherichia coli RecA protein|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2017|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|