Introduction: During locomotion, the control of spatial orientation through dynamic updating between the body and the environment is required. Beside information from sensory system receptors, also motor signals contribute to spatial representations during navigation. Difficulties during navigational tasks may lead to functional problems in everyday life. Research Question: The aim of the study was to explore spatial navigation in children with cerebral palsy and spina bifida. Methods: Nineteen children with cerebral palsy (CP), 13 walking (WA) and six using wheelchair (WC) (mean age 11.8 ± 2.9), 19 children with spina bifida (SB), 10 WA and nine WC (mean age 12.4 ± 2.9) and 82 typical developing (TD) children, all WA (mean age 10.9 ± 2.5) participated in the study. Corsi Block-Tapping Test (CBT). The CBT (Figure 1) was used to assess the visuo-spatial working memory in the reaching space. The CBT is composed of nine wooden blocks (4.5 x 4.5 cm) fixed on a baseboard (30 x 25 cm). On the experimenter’s side, the blocks are numbered for easy identification. The examiner tapps a sequence of blocks at the rate of one block per two seconds, and the child had to reproduce the same sequence in the same order by touching the blocks on a small board Walking Corst test (WalCT). The WalCT (Figure 2) was used to investigate topographical memory by asking the child to reproduce by walking a previously observed pathway. The WalCT is composed of nine black squares (30 x 30 cm) that are placed on the floor. The starting point is the black square located outside the layout. The examiner walks and stops on a series of squares. In both tests increasing spatial sequences (i.e., number of blocks or squares starting from a 2-block sequence) were presented until the child was unable to reproduce two out of three trials of a given length. WalCT and CBT were performed, in randomized order and analyzed according to the longest list of items that the children could repeat. Parametric statistics was performed using SPSS version 22. To control for variations between WA and WC, WC was compared with WC performance by pointing (WP). Cognitive non-verbal test (Raven’s Coloured Progressive Matrices, CPM) was performed in children with CP and SB to assess cognitive development. Results: CP had lower WalCT and lower CBT scores than TD (3.63 versus 4.57, p=0.005 and 4.16 versus 5.10, p<0.001 respectively). SB had higher CBT score than CP (5.05 versus 4.16, p=0.003). No differences were found in neither CP nor SB between WC and WP and in CPM. Discussion: At similar cognitive development as tested with CPM, no significant differences were found between TD children and children with SB, whereas in children with CP, the results showed deficiencies in spatial orientation both with respect to extrapersonal and peripersonal spaces, indicating difficulties both with topographical working memory as well as with visuo-spatial working memory. Further analysis is required about visual function and presence of hydrocephalus (in children with SB). References: Corsi, P.M 1972, Raven, J.C 1986, Piccardi L et al. 2013.
|Titolo:||Spatial navigation during locomotion in children with cerebral palsy and spina bifida|
|Autori interni:||PICCARDI, LAURA|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2016|
|Rivista:||GAIT & POSTURE|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||4.1 Contributo in Atti di convegno|