As a contribution to phase2 of the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII), eight different simulations for the year 2010 were performed with WRF-Chem for the European domain. The four simulations using RADM2 gas-phase chemistry and the MADE/SORGAM aerosol module are analyzed in this paper. The simulations included different degrees of aerosol-meteorology feedback, ranging from no aerosol effects at all to the inclusion of the aerosol direct radiative effect as well as aerosol cloud interactions and the aerosol indirect effect. In addition, a modification of the RADM2 gas phase chemistry solver was tested. The yearly simulations allow characterizing the average impact of the consideration of feedback effects on meteorology and pollutant concentrations and an analysis of the seasonality. Pronounced feedback effects were found for the summer 2010 Russian wildfire episode, where the direct aerosol effect lowered the seasonal mean solar radiation by 20Wm<sup>-3</sup> and seasonal mean temperature by 0.25°. This might be considered as a lower limit as it must be taken into account that aerosol concentrations were generally underestimated by up to 50%. The high aerosol concentrations from the wildfires resulted in a 10%-30% decreased precipitation over Russia when aerosol cloud interactions were taken into account. The most pronounced and persistent feedback due to the indirect aerosol effect was found for regions with very low aerosol concentrations like the Atlantic and Northern Europe. The low aerosol concentrations in this area result in very low cloud droplet numbers between 5 and 100dropletscm<sup>-1</sup> and a 50-70% lower cloud liquid water path. This leads to an increase in the downward solar radiation by almost 50%. Over Northern Scandinavia, this results in almost one degree higher mean temperatures during summer. In winter, the decreased liquid water path resulted in increased long-wave cooling and a decrease of the mean temperature by almost the same amount. Precipitation over the Atlantic Ocean was found to be enhanced by up to 30% when aerosol cloud interactions were taken into account. The inclusion of aerosol cloud interactions can reduce the bias or improve correlations of simulated precipitation for some episodes and regions. However, the domain and time averaged performance statistics do not indicate a general improvement when aerosol feedbacks are taken into account. Except for conditions with either very low or very high aerosol concentrations, the impact of aerosol feedbacks on pollutant distributions was found to be smaller than the effect of the choice of the chemistry module or wet deposition implementation.
|Titolo:||Analysis of the WRF-Chem contributions to AQMEII phase2 with respect to aerosol radiative feedbacks on meteorology and pollutant distributions|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2015|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|