Mechanical unloading causes detrimental effects on the skeleton, but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. We investigated the effect of microgravity on osteolblast ability to regulate osteoclastogenesis. Mouse osteoblast primary cultures were grown for 24 h at unit gravity or under simulated microgravity, using the NASA-developed Rotating Wall Vessel bioreactor. Conditioned media (CM) from osteoblasts subjected to microgravity increased osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption in mouse bone marrow cultures. In these osteoblasts, the RANKL/OPG ratio was higher relative to 1g. Consistently, treatment with high concentrations of OPG-inhibited osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption in the presence of CM arising from osteoblasts Cultured Linder microgravity. Microgravity failed to affect osteoblast differentiation and function in the time frame of the experiment, as we found no effect on alkaline phosphatase mRNA and activity, nor on Runx2, osteocalcin, osteopontin, and collagen1A2 mRNA expression. In contrast, microgravity induced a time dependent increase of ERK-1/2 phosphorylation, while phospho-p38 and phospho-JNK remained unchanged. Apoptosis, revealed by bis-benzimide staining, was similar among the various gravity conditions, while it was increased under microgravity after treatment with the MEK-1/2 inhibitor, PD98059, suggesting a protection role by ERK-1/ 2 against cell death. In conclusion, microgravity is capable to indirectly Stimulate osteoclast formation and activity by regulating osteoblast secretion of crucial regulatory factors such as RANKL and OPG. We hypothesize that this mechanism could contribute to bone loss in individuals subjected to weightlessness and other unloading conditions.

Modeled microgravity stimulates osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption by increasing osteoblast RANKL/OPG ratio

RUCCI, Nadia;TETI, ANNA MARIA
2007

Abstract

Mechanical unloading causes detrimental effects on the skeleton, but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. We investigated the effect of microgravity on osteolblast ability to regulate osteoclastogenesis. Mouse osteoblast primary cultures were grown for 24 h at unit gravity or under simulated microgravity, using the NASA-developed Rotating Wall Vessel bioreactor. Conditioned media (CM) from osteoblasts subjected to microgravity increased osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption in mouse bone marrow cultures. In these osteoblasts, the RANKL/OPG ratio was higher relative to 1g. Consistently, treatment with high concentrations of OPG-inhibited osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption in the presence of CM arising from osteoblasts Cultured Linder microgravity. Microgravity failed to affect osteoblast differentiation and function in the time frame of the experiment, as we found no effect on alkaline phosphatase mRNA and activity, nor on Runx2, osteocalcin, osteopontin, and collagen1A2 mRNA expression. In contrast, microgravity induced a time dependent increase of ERK-1/2 phosphorylation, while phospho-p38 and phospho-JNK remained unchanged. Apoptosis, revealed by bis-benzimide staining, was similar among the various gravity conditions, while it was increased under microgravity after treatment with the MEK-1/2 inhibitor, PD98059, suggesting a protection role by ERK-1/ 2 against cell death. In conclusion, microgravity is capable to indirectly Stimulate osteoclast formation and activity by regulating osteoblast secretion of crucial regulatory factors such as RANKL and OPG. We hypothesize that this mechanism could contribute to bone loss in individuals subjected to weightlessness and other unloading conditions.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11697/11348
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