Rationale Sulfur-vulcanized rubber is a three-dimensional polymer network, insoluble in all organic solvents. For this reason, vulcanization products are difficult to study and identify by conventional analytical techniques. To simplify this task, low molecular weight olefins have been used as model compounds (MCs) in place of rubber in vulcanization experiments. Methods In this work, the vulcanization process was investigated using squalene (SQ) as MC. By-products, intermediates and products were separated by semipreparative reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) with UV detection. Each fraction was collected, concentrated and characterized by flow injection analysis (FIA) and non-aqueous reversed-phase (NARP) LC coupled to positive atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (APCI-MS). Under the latter conditions, an Information-Dependent Acquisition (IDA) was performed on a linear ion trap mass spectrometer to obtain structural information. Results Several vulcanized compounds containing up to three SQ molecules, cross-linked with chains involving up to 14 sulfur atoms overall, have been identified along with some of their oxidized products (epoxides and hydroperoxides). The FIA-MS spectra showed peak clusters, each of which included two-three subclusters; the interpretation was complicated by the occurrence of more ion species per product, by the unsaturation grade and by the characteristic isotopic distribution of sulfur. The enhanced product ion scan (EPI) spectra, acquired during the IDA experiments, supported the FIA-MS identification allowing one to count the number of sulfur atoms. Conclusions The sensitivity of the developed analytical strategy was due to the enrichment factor achieved via semipreparative chromatography and the very good response of the APCI detection. Pattern fragmentation and chromatographic behavior simplified the identification of the cured compounds and their oxidized products, whose occurrence was related to the grade of oxidation of SQ used as reagent.
|Titolo:||Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry identification of intermediates and vulcanization products by using squalene as vulcanization model compound|
|Autori interni:||GIANSANTI, LUISA|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2016|
|Rivista:||RAPID COMMUNICATIONS IN MASS SPECTROMETRY|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|