Objective: Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) is an organochlorine known for its pesticide properties and for its negative effects on human health. It was banned in most countries for its toxicity to the endocrine system, but due to its persistence at clinically relevant concentrations in both soil and animal tissues, DDT is still linked to several health and social problems. Methods: We have previously shown that DDT exposure is causally related to the extracellular release of vesicular organelles such as microvesicles and/or exosomes by using immunocytochemistry with gold-tagged antibodies and various fluorescent membrane markers. Results: It is now well recognized that microvesicles and/or exosomes organelles are implicated in cell-to-cell communication, and that they are fundamental elements for transferring proteins, RNA, DNA, lipids and transcriptional factors among cells. In this short review, we discussed the role of extracellular vesicle formation in the thyroid-disrupting mechanism of DDT. In particular, we described how DDT, by dislodging the thyrotropin hormone (TSH) receptor from the raft containing compartments of the cells, prevents its activation and internalization. Conclusion: Based on our earlier finding and on the large body of evidence here reviewed, we propose that DDT-induced formation of extracellular vesicles containing the TSH receptor could be directly involved in the development of autoimmune responses against the TSH receptor and that, therefore, their release could lead to the development of the Gravesâ disease.
|Titolo:||The cell biology of the thyroid-disrupting mechanism of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT)|
MAGGIO, Roberto (Corresponding)
|Data di pubblicazione:||2018|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|