Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are newly appreciated regulators of tissue homeostasis and a means of intercellular communication. Reports have investigated the role of EVs and their cargoes in cellular regulation and have tried to fine-tune their biotechnological use, but to date very little is known on their function in bone biology. To investigate the relevance of EV-mediated communication between bone cells, we isolated EVs from primary mouse osteoblasts and assessed membrane integrity, size, and structure by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). EVs actively shuttled loaded fluorochromes to osteoblasts, monocytes, and endothelial cells. Moreover, osteoblast EVs contained mRNAs shared with donor cells. Osteoblasts are known to regulate osteoclastogenesis, osteoclast survival, and osteoclast function by the pro-osteoclastic cytokine, receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-B ligand (Rankl). Osteoblast EVs were enriched in Rankl, which increased after PTH treatment. These EVs were biologically active, supporting osteoclast survival. EVs isolated from rankl-/-osteoblasts lost this pro-osteoclastic function, indicating its Rankl-dependence. They integrated ex vivo into murine calvariae, and EV-shuttled fluorochromes were quickly taken up by the bone upon in vivo EV systemic administration. Rankl-/-mice lack the osteoclast lineage and are negative for its specific marker tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAcP). Treatment of rankl-/-mice with wild-type osteoblast EVs induced the appearance of TRAcP-positive cells in an EV density-dependent manner. Finally, osteoblast EVs internalized and shuttled anti-osteoclast drugs (zoledronate and dasatinib), inhibiting osteoclast activity in vitro and in vivo. We conclude that osteoblast EVs are involved in intercellular communication between bone cells, contribute to the Rankl pro-osteoclastic effect, and shuttle anti-osteoclast drugs, representing a potential means of targeted therapeutic delivery. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research Published by Wiley Periodicals Inc.

Osteoblast-Derived Extracellular Vesicles Are Biological Tools for the Delivery of Active Molecules to Bone

Cappariello, Alfredo;Maurizi, Antonio;Rucci, Nadia;Teti, Anna
2018

Abstract

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are newly appreciated regulators of tissue homeostasis and a means of intercellular communication. Reports have investigated the role of EVs and their cargoes in cellular regulation and have tried to fine-tune their biotechnological use, but to date very little is known on their function in bone biology. To investigate the relevance of EV-mediated communication between bone cells, we isolated EVs from primary mouse osteoblasts and assessed membrane integrity, size, and structure by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). EVs actively shuttled loaded fluorochromes to osteoblasts, monocytes, and endothelial cells. Moreover, osteoblast EVs contained mRNAs shared with donor cells. Osteoblasts are known to regulate osteoclastogenesis, osteoclast survival, and osteoclast function by the pro-osteoclastic cytokine, receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-B ligand (Rankl). Osteoblast EVs were enriched in Rankl, which increased after PTH treatment. These EVs were biologically active, supporting osteoclast survival. EVs isolated from rankl-/-osteoblasts lost this pro-osteoclastic function, indicating its Rankl-dependence. They integrated ex vivo into murine calvariae, and EV-shuttled fluorochromes were quickly taken up by the bone upon in vivo EV systemic administration. Rankl-/-mice lack the osteoclast lineage and are negative for its specific marker tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAcP). Treatment of rankl-/-mice with wild-type osteoblast EVs induced the appearance of TRAcP-positive cells in an EV density-dependent manner. Finally, osteoblast EVs internalized and shuttled anti-osteoclast drugs (zoledronate and dasatinib), inhibiting osteoclast activity in vitro and in vivo. We conclude that osteoblast EVs are involved in intercellular communication between bone cells, contribute to the Rankl pro-osteoclastic effect, and shuttle anti-osteoclast drugs, representing a potential means of targeted therapeutic delivery. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research Published by Wiley Periodicals Inc.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11697/121728
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