The relationship between epilepsy and endocrine system has attracted the attention of investigators for a number of years. Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder; both seizures and anti-epileptic drugs can compromise the physical and hormonal aspects of sexual development. Impairment of libido and sexual potency have been frequently reported in male epileptic patients. Women with epilepsy have a greater risk of infertility (anovulatory cycles and polycystic ovary syndrome). This review analyses the main data from the literature in order to clarify the role of epilepsy and antiepileptic drugs on sex hormones in epileptic patients. As gonad dysfunction is frequently observed in women and men with epilepsy, particularly when taking anti-epileptic drugs, ovarian and testicular function must be carefully monitored.
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