Summary The basal ganglia consist of a variety of subcortical nuclei engaged in motor control and executive functions, such as motor learning, behavioral control, and emotion. The striatum, a major basal ganglia component, is particularly useful for cognitive planning of purposive motor acts owing to its structural features and the neuronal circuitry established with the cerebral cortex. Recent data indicate emergent functions played by the striatum. Indeed, cortico-striatal circuits carrying motor information are paralleled by circuits originating from associative and limbic territories, which are functionally integrated in the striatum. Functional integration between brain areas is achieved through patterns of coherent activity. Coherence belonging to cortico- basal ganglia circuits is also present in Parkinson’s disease patients. Excessive synchronization occurring in this pathology is reduced by dopaminergic therapies. The mechanisms through which the dopaminergic effects may be addressed are the object of several ongoing investigations. Overall, the bulk of data reported in recent years has provided new vistas concerning basal ganglia role in the organization and control of movement and behavior, both in physiological and pathological conditions. In this review, basal ganglia functions involved in the organization of main movement categories and behaviors are critically discussed. Comparatively, the multiplicity of Parkinson’s disease symptomatology is also revised.

The Basal Ganglia: More than just a switching device

Florio TM
Writing – Original Draft Preparation
;
Scarnati E;Rosa I;Di Censo D;Ranieri B;Cimini A;Galante A;Alecci M
2018-01-01

Abstract

Summary The basal ganglia consist of a variety of subcortical nuclei engaged in motor control and executive functions, such as motor learning, behavioral control, and emotion. The striatum, a major basal ganglia component, is particularly useful for cognitive planning of purposive motor acts owing to its structural features and the neuronal circuitry established with the cerebral cortex. Recent data indicate emergent functions played by the striatum. Indeed, cortico-striatal circuits carrying motor information are paralleled by circuits originating from associative and limbic territories, which are functionally integrated in the striatum. Functional integration between brain areas is achieved through patterns of coherent activity. Coherence belonging to cortico- basal ganglia circuits is also present in Parkinson’s disease patients. Excessive synchronization occurring in this pathology is reduced by dopaminergic therapies. The mechanisms through which the dopaminergic effects may be addressed are the object of several ongoing investigations. Overall, the bulk of data reported in recent years has provided new vistas concerning basal ganglia role in the organization and control of movement and behavior, both in physiological and pathological conditions. In this review, basal ganglia functions involved in the organization of main movement categories and behaviors are critically discussed. Comparatively, the multiplicity of Parkinson’s disease symptomatology is also revised.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11697/126375
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