Selecting the most appropriate antiepileptic drug (AED) or combination of drugs for each patient and identifying the most suitable therapeutic regimen for their needs is increasingly challenging, especially among pediatric populations. In fact, the pharmacokinetics of several drugs vary widely in children with epilepsy because of age-related factors, which can influence the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination of the pharmacological agent. In addition, individual factors, such as seizure type, associated comorbidities, individual pharmacokinetics, and potential drug interactions, may contribute to large fluctuations in serum drug concentrations and, therefore, clinical response. Therapeutic drug concentration monitoring (TDM) is an essential tool to deal with this complexity, enabling the definition of individual therapeutic concentrations and adaptive control of dosing to minimize drug interactions and prevent loss of efficacy or toxicity. Moreover, pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modelling integrated with dashboard systems have recently been tested in antiepileptic therapy, although more clinical trials are required to support their use in clinical practice. We review the mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, drug-drug interactions, and safety/tolerability profiles of the main AEDs currently used in children and adolescents, paying particular regard to issues of relevance when treating this patient population. Indications for TDM are provided for each AED as useful support to the clinical management of pediatric patients with epilepsy by optimizing pharmacological therapy.

Pharmacokinetics and Drug Interaction of Antiepileptic Drugs in Children and Adolescents

Iapadre, Giulia;Zagaroli, Luca;Verrotti, Alberto
2018

Abstract

Selecting the most appropriate antiepileptic drug (AED) or combination of drugs for each patient and identifying the most suitable therapeutic regimen for their needs is increasingly challenging, especially among pediatric populations. In fact, the pharmacokinetics of several drugs vary widely in children with epilepsy because of age-related factors, which can influence the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination of the pharmacological agent. In addition, individual factors, such as seizure type, associated comorbidities, individual pharmacokinetics, and potential drug interactions, may contribute to large fluctuations in serum drug concentrations and, therefore, clinical response. Therapeutic drug concentration monitoring (TDM) is an essential tool to deal with this complexity, enabling the definition of individual therapeutic concentrations and adaptive control of dosing to minimize drug interactions and prevent loss of efficacy or toxicity. Moreover, pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modelling integrated with dashboard systems have recently been tested in antiepileptic therapy, although more clinical trials are required to support their use in clinical practice. We review the mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, drug-drug interactions, and safety/tolerability profiles of the main AEDs currently used in children and adolescents, paying particular regard to issues of relevance when treating this patient population. Indications for TDM are provided for each AED as useful support to the clinical management of pediatric patients with epilepsy by optimizing pharmacological therapy.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11697/130438
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