Background: Numerous studies indicate that flavanols may exert significant vascular protection because of their antioxidant properties and increased nitric oxide bioavailability. In turn, nitric oxide bioavailability deeply influences insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and vascular tone. Thus, flavanols may also exert positive metabolic and pressor effects. Objective: The objective was to compare the effects of either dark or white chocolate bars on blood pressure and glucose and insulin responses to an oral-glucose-tolerance test in healthy subjects. Design: After a 7-d cocoa-free run-in phase, 15 healthy subjects were randomly assigned to receive for 15 d either 100 g dark chocolate bars, which contained 500 mg polyphenols, or 90 g white chocolate bars, which presumably contained no polyphenols. Successively, subjects entered a further cocoa-free washout phase of 7 d and then were crossed over to the other condition. Oral-glucosetolerance tests were performed at the end of each period to calculate the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI); blood pressure was measured daily. Results: HOMA-IR was significantly lower after dark than after white chocolate ingestion (0.940.42 compared with 1.720.62; P 0.001), and QUICKI was significantly higher after dark than after white chocolate ingestion (0.398 0.039 compared with 03560.023; P0.001). Although within normal values, systolic blood pressure was lower after dark than after white chocolate ingestion (107.58.6 compared with 113.98.4mmHg; P0.05). Conclusion: Dark, but not white, chocolate decreases blood pressure and improves insulin sensitivity in healthy persons.

Short-term administration of dark chocolate is followed by a significant increase in insulin sensitivity and a decrease in blood pressure in healthy persons

GRASSI D;DESIDERI, GIOVAMBATTISTA;FERRI, CLAUDIO;NECOZIONE, STEFANO
2005

Abstract

Background: Numerous studies indicate that flavanols may exert significant vascular protection because of their antioxidant properties and increased nitric oxide bioavailability. In turn, nitric oxide bioavailability deeply influences insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and vascular tone. Thus, flavanols may also exert positive metabolic and pressor effects. Objective: The objective was to compare the effects of either dark or white chocolate bars on blood pressure and glucose and insulin responses to an oral-glucose-tolerance test in healthy subjects. Design: After a 7-d cocoa-free run-in phase, 15 healthy subjects were randomly assigned to receive for 15 d either 100 g dark chocolate bars, which contained 500 mg polyphenols, or 90 g white chocolate bars, which presumably contained no polyphenols. Successively, subjects entered a further cocoa-free washout phase of 7 d and then were crossed over to the other condition. Oral-glucosetolerance tests were performed at the end of each period to calculate the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI); blood pressure was measured daily. Results: HOMA-IR was significantly lower after dark than after white chocolate ingestion (0.940.42 compared with 1.720.62; P 0.001), and QUICKI was significantly higher after dark than after white chocolate ingestion (0.398 0.039 compared with 03560.023; P0.001). Although within normal values, systolic blood pressure was lower after dark than after white chocolate ingestion (107.58.6 compared with 113.98.4mmHg; P0.05). Conclusion: Dark, but not white, chocolate decreases blood pressure and improves insulin sensitivity in healthy persons.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11697/13225
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