Tebuconazole and Econazole are triazole and imidazole fungicides currently used worldwide. Although their reproductive toxicity in mammals has been described, their effect on male reproductive systems has been poorly investigated. As humans may be exposed to different azole compounds simultaneously, the combinational in vitro toxicity of Tebuconazole and Econazole (MIX) in mouse Sertoli TM4 cells was investigated. This study demonstrates that Tebuconazole (40 µM) and Econazole (20 µM) act synergistically in mediating decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and changes in mitochondrial morphology. These events were associated with ATP depletion, cell cycle arrest, and sequential activation of autophagy and apoptosis. Remarkable differences on other parameters such as AMP/ATP ratio and adenylate energy charge were observed. Pharmacological inhibition of autophagy by bafilomycin A1 leads to enhanced MIX-induced apoptosis suggesting an adaptive cytoprotective function for MIX-modulated autophagy. Finally, a possible role of AMPK/ULK1 axis in mediating adaptive signalling cascades in response to energy stress was hypothesized. Consistently, ULK1 Ser 555 phosphorylation occurred in response to AMPK (Thr 172) activation. In conclusion, Tebuconazole and Econazole combination, at concentrations relevant for dermal and clinical exposure, induces a severe mitochondrial stress in SCs. Consequently, a prolonged exposure may affect the ability of the cells to re-establish homeostasis and trigger apoptosis.
|Titolo:||Tebuconazole and Econazole Act Synergistically in Mediating Mitochondrial Stress, Energy Imbalance, and Sequential Activation of Autophagy and Apoptosis in Mouse Sertoli TM4 Cells: Possible Role of AMPK/ULK1 Axis|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2019|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|