Recognition of endogenous molecules acting as "damage-associated molecular patterns" (DAMPs) is a key feature of immunity in both animals and plants. Oligogalacturonides (OGs), i.e. fragments derived from the hydrolysis of homogalacturonan, a major component of pectin are a well-known class of DAMPs that activate immunity and protect plants against several microbes. However, hyper-accumulation of OGs severely affects growth, eventually leading to cell death and clearly pointing to OGs as players in the growth-defence trade-off. Here we report a mechanism that may control the homeostasis of OGs avoiding their deleterious hyper-accumulation. By combining affinity chromatography on acrylamide-trapped OGs and other procedures, an Arabidopsis thaliana enzyme that specifically oxidizes OGs was purified and identified. The enzyme was named OG OXIDASE 1 (OGOX1) and shown to be encoded by the gene At4g20830. As a typical flavo-protein, OGOX1 is a sulphite-sensitive H2O2-producing enzyme that displays maximal activity on OGs with a degree of polymerization >4. OGOX1 belongs to a large gene family of mainly apoplastic putative FAD-binding proteins [Berberine-Bridge Enzyme-like (BBE-like); 27 members], whose biochemical and biological function is largely unexplored. We have found that at least four BBE-like enzymes in Arabidopsis are OG oxidases (OGOX1-4). Oxidized OGs display a reduced capability of activating the immune responses and are less hydrolysable by fungal polygalacturonases. Plants overexpressing OGOX1 are more resistant to Botrytis cinerea, pointing to a crucial role of OGOX enzymes in plant immunity.

Four Arabidopsis berberine-bridge enzyme-like proteins are specific oxidases that inactivate the elicitor-active oligogalacturonides

Benedetti, Manuel;Mattei, Benedetta;
2018-01-01

Abstract

Recognition of endogenous molecules acting as "damage-associated molecular patterns" (DAMPs) is a key feature of immunity in both animals and plants. Oligogalacturonides (OGs), i.e. fragments derived from the hydrolysis of homogalacturonan, a major component of pectin are a well-known class of DAMPs that activate immunity and protect plants against several microbes. However, hyper-accumulation of OGs severely affects growth, eventually leading to cell death and clearly pointing to OGs as players in the growth-defence trade-off. Here we report a mechanism that may control the homeostasis of OGs avoiding their deleterious hyper-accumulation. By combining affinity chromatography on acrylamide-trapped OGs and other procedures, an Arabidopsis thaliana enzyme that specifically oxidizes OGs was purified and identified. The enzyme was named OG OXIDASE 1 (OGOX1) and shown to be encoded by the gene At4g20830. As a typical flavo-protein, OGOX1 is a sulphite-sensitive H2O2-producing enzyme that displays maximal activity on OGs with a degree of polymerization >4. OGOX1 belongs to a large gene family of mainly apoplastic putative FAD-binding proteins [Berberine-Bridge Enzyme-like (BBE-like); 27 members], whose biochemical and biological function is largely unexplored. We have found that at least four BBE-like enzymes in Arabidopsis are OG oxidases (OGOX1-4). Oxidized OGs display a reduced capability of activating the immune responses and are less hydrolysable by fungal polygalacturonases. Plants overexpressing OGOX1 are more resistant to Botrytis cinerea, pointing to a crucial role of OGOX enzymes in plant immunity.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11697/135687
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