The relevance of nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS2) as a prognostic factor in Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) malignancy is emerging. We analyzed the effect of NOS2 inhibitor 1400W on the autophagic flux and extracellular vesicle (EV) secretion in U87MG glioma cells. The effects of glioma stem cells (GSC)-derived EVs on adherent U87MG were evaluated. Cell proliferation and migration were examined while using Cell Counting Kit-8 assay (CCK-8) and scratch wound healing assay. Cell cycle profile and apoptosis were analyzed by flow cytometry. Autophagy-associated acidic vesicular organelles were detected and quantified by acridine orange staining. The number and size of EVs were assessed by nanoparticle tracking analysis. EV ultrastructure was verified by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). WB was used to analyze protein expression and acid sphingomyelinase was determined through ceramide levels. 1400W induced autophagy and EV secretion in both adherent U87MG and GSCs. EVs secreted by 1400W-treated GSC, but not those from untreated cells, were able to inhibit adherent U87MG cell growth and migration while also inducing a relevant level of autophagy. The hypothesis of NOS2 expression as GBM profile marker or interesting therapeutic target is supported by our findings. Autophagy and EV release following treatment with the NOS2 inhibitor could represent useful elements to better understand the complex biomolecular frame of GBM.
PALUMBO, PAOLA;LOMBARDI, FRANCESCA;AUGELLO, FRANCESCA ROSARIA;GIUSTI, ILARIA;LUZZI, SABINO;Dolo V.;Cifone M. G.;Cinque B.
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