Women affected by ovarian pathologies or with cancer can usually preserve fertility by egg/embryo freezing. When oocyte retrieval is not feasible, the only option available is ovarian tissue cryopreservation and transplantation. The culture of follicles isolated from fresh or cryopreserved ovaries is considered still experimental, although this procedure is considered safer, because the risk of unintentional spreading of cancer cells eventually present in cryopreserved tissue is avoided. Animal and human small follicles can be cultured in vitro, but standardized protocols able to produce in vitro grown oocytes with the same developmental capacity of in vivo grown oocytes are not available yet. In fact, the different sizes of follicles and oocytes, the hormonal differences existing between mono- (e.g., human, goat, cow, and sheep) and poly-ovulatory (rodents and pig) species, and the incomplete identification of the mechanisms regulating the oocyte-follicle and follicle-ovary interrelationships affect the outcome of in vitro culture. From all these attempts, however, new ideas arise, and the goal of assuring the preservation of female reproductive potential appears a more realistic possibility. This review surveys and discusses advances and challenges of these technologies that, starting from a simple attempt, are now approaching the biosynthesis of a functional engineered ovary.
|Titolo:||Technologies for the production of fertilizable mammalian oocytes|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2019|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|