Ir(II) cationic complexes with cyclometalating tetrazolate ligands were prepared for the first time, following a two-step strategy based on (i) a silver-assisted cyclometalation reaction of a tetrazole derivative with IrCl3 affording a bis-cyclometalated solvato-complex P ([Ir(ptrz)(2)(CH3CN)(2)](+), Hptrz = 2-methyl-5-phenyl-2H-tetrazole); (ii) a substitution reaction with five neutral ancillary ligands to get [Ir(ptrz)(2)L](+), with L = 2,2'-bypiridine (1), 4,4'-di-tert-butyl-2,2'-bipyridine (2), 1,10-phenanthroline (3), and 2-(1-phenyl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)pyridine (4), and [Ir(ptrz)(2)L-2](+), with L = tertbutyl isocyanide (5). X-ray crystal structures of P, 2, and 3 were solved. Electrochemical and photophysical studies, along with density functional theory calculations, allowed a comprehensive rationalization of the electronic properties of 1-5. In acetonitrile at 298 K, complexes equipped with bipyridine or phenanthroline ancillary ligands (1-3) exhibit intense and structureless emission bands centered at around 540 nm, with metal-to-ligand and ligand-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT/LLCT) character; their photoluminescence quantum yields (PLQYs) are in the range of 55-70%. By contrast, the luminescence band of 5 is weak, structured, and blue-shifted and is attributed to a ligand-centered (LC) triplet state of the tetrazolate cyclometalated ligand. The PLQY of 4 is extremely low (<0.1%) since its lowest level is a nonemissive triplet metal-centered ((MC)-M-3) state. In rigid matrix at 77 K, all of the complexes exhibit intense luminescence. Ligands 1-3 are also strong emitters in solid matrices at room temperature (196 poly(methyl methacrylate) matrix and neat films), with PLQYs in the range of 27-70%. Good quality films of 2 could be obtained to make light-emitting electrochemical cells that emit bright green light and exhibit a maximum luminance of 310 cd m(-2). Tetrazolate cyclometalated ligands push the emission of Ir(III) complexes to the blue, when compared to pyrazolate or triazolate analogues. More generally, among the cationic Ir(III) complexes without fluorine substituents on the cyclometalated ligands, 1-3 exhibit the highest-energy MLCT/LLCT emission bands ever reported.

Iridium(III) complexes with phenyl-tetrazoles as cyclometalating ligands

Baschieri A.;
2014-01-01

Abstract

Ir(II) cationic complexes with cyclometalating tetrazolate ligands were prepared for the first time, following a two-step strategy based on (i) a silver-assisted cyclometalation reaction of a tetrazole derivative with IrCl3 affording a bis-cyclometalated solvato-complex P ([Ir(ptrz)(2)(CH3CN)(2)](+), Hptrz = 2-methyl-5-phenyl-2H-tetrazole); (ii) a substitution reaction with five neutral ancillary ligands to get [Ir(ptrz)(2)L](+), with L = 2,2'-bypiridine (1), 4,4'-di-tert-butyl-2,2'-bipyridine (2), 1,10-phenanthroline (3), and 2-(1-phenyl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)pyridine (4), and [Ir(ptrz)(2)L-2](+), with L = tertbutyl isocyanide (5). X-ray crystal structures of P, 2, and 3 were solved. Electrochemical and photophysical studies, along with density functional theory calculations, allowed a comprehensive rationalization of the electronic properties of 1-5. In acetonitrile at 298 K, complexes equipped with bipyridine or phenanthroline ancillary ligands (1-3) exhibit intense and structureless emission bands centered at around 540 nm, with metal-to-ligand and ligand-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT/LLCT) character; their photoluminescence quantum yields (PLQYs) are in the range of 55-70%. By contrast, the luminescence band of 5 is weak, structured, and blue-shifted and is attributed to a ligand-centered (LC) triplet state of the tetrazolate cyclometalated ligand. The PLQY of 4 is extremely low (<0.1%) since its lowest level is a nonemissive triplet metal-centered ((MC)-M-3) state. In rigid matrix at 77 K, all of the complexes exhibit intense luminescence. Ligands 1-3 are also strong emitters in solid matrices at room temperature (196 poly(methyl methacrylate) matrix and neat films), with PLQYs in the range of 27-70%. Good quality films of 2 could be obtained to make light-emitting electrochemical cells that emit bright green light and exhibit a maximum luminance of 310 cd m(-2). Tetrazolate cyclometalated ligands push the emission of Ir(III) complexes to the blue, when compared to pyrazolate or triazolate analogues. More generally, among the cationic Ir(III) complexes without fluorine substituents on the cyclometalated ligands, 1-3 exhibit the highest-energy MLCT/LLCT emission bands ever reported.
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11697/139129
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 5
  • Scopus 64
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 62
social impact