Mechanical loading represents a crucial factor in the regulation of skeletal homeostasis. Its reduction causes loss of bone mass, eventually leading to osteoporosis. In a previous global transcriptome analysis performed in mouse calvarial osteoblasts subjected to simulated microgravity, the most up-regulated gene compared to unit gravity condition was Lcn2, encoding the adipokine Lipocalin 2 (LCN2), whose function in bone metabolism is poorly known. To investigate the mechanoresponding properties of LCN2, we evaluated LCN2 levels in sera of healthy volunteers subjected to bed rest, and found a significant time-dependent increase of this adipokine compared to time 0. We then evaluated the in vivo LCN2 regulation in mice subjected to experimentally-induced mechanical unloading by i) tail suspension, ii) muscle paralysis by botulin toxin A (Botox) or iii) genetically-induced muscular dystrophy (MDX mice), and observed that Lcn2 expression was up-regulated in the long bones of all of them, while physical exercise counteracted this increase. Mechanistically, in primary osteoblasts transfected with LCN2-expression-vector (OBs-Lcn2) we observed that Runx2 and its downstream genes Osterix and Alp were transcriptionally down-regulated, and ALP activity was less prominent versus empty-vector transduced osteoblasts (OBs-empty). OBs-Lcn2 also exhibited an increase of the Rankl/Opg ratio and IL-6 mRNA, suggesting that LCN2 could link osteoblast poor differentiation to enhanced osteoclast stimulation. In fact, incubation of purified mouse bone marrow mononuclear cells with conditioned media from OBs-Lcn2 cultures, or their co-culture with OBs-Lcn2, improved osteoclastogenesis compared to OBs-empty, while treatment with LCN2 had no effect. In conclusion, our data indicate that LCN2 is a novel osteoblast mechanoresponding gene and that its regulation could be central to the pathological response of the bone tissue to low mechanical forces. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

Lipocalin 2: A New Mechanoresponding Gene Regulating Bone Homeostasis

RUCCI, Nadia;CAPULLI, MATTIA;TETI, ANNA MARIA
2015

Abstract

Mechanical loading represents a crucial factor in the regulation of skeletal homeostasis. Its reduction causes loss of bone mass, eventually leading to osteoporosis. In a previous global transcriptome analysis performed in mouse calvarial osteoblasts subjected to simulated microgravity, the most up-regulated gene compared to unit gravity condition was Lcn2, encoding the adipokine Lipocalin 2 (LCN2), whose function in bone metabolism is poorly known. To investigate the mechanoresponding properties of LCN2, we evaluated LCN2 levels in sera of healthy volunteers subjected to bed rest, and found a significant time-dependent increase of this adipokine compared to time 0. We then evaluated the in vivo LCN2 regulation in mice subjected to experimentally-induced mechanical unloading by i) tail suspension, ii) muscle paralysis by botulin toxin A (Botox) or iii) genetically-induced muscular dystrophy (MDX mice), and observed that Lcn2 expression was up-regulated in the long bones of all of them, while physical exercise counteracted this increase. Mechanistically, in primary osteoblasts transfected with LCN2-expression-vector (OBs-Lcn2) we observed that Runx2 and its downstream genes Osterix and Alp were transcriptionally down-regulated, and ALP activity was less prominent versus empty-vector transduced osteoblasts (OBs-empty). OBs-Lcn2 also exhibited an increase of the Rankl/Opg ratio and IL-6 mRNA, suggesting that LCN2 could link osteoblast poor differentiation to enhanced osteoclast stimulation. In fact, incubation of purified mouse bone marrow mononuclear cells with conditioned media from OBs-Lcn2 cultures, or their co-culture with OBs-Lcn2, improved osteoclastogenesis compared to OBs-empty, while treatment with LCN2 had no effect. In conclusion, our data indicate that LCN2 is a novel osteoblast mechanoresponding gene and that its regulation could be central to the pathological response of the bone tissue to low mechanical forces. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11697/14093
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