In this article, we summarize the developments in the mathematical modeling of the mechanics of bone and related biological phenomena. We will devote special attention to the results of the last 10–15 years, although we will cover some relevant classical work to better frame the more recent researches. We will propose a division of the literature based on the main aim of the model (mechanical/biomathematical) and the type of biological phenomena considered (stimulus, growth, cell population dynamics). Finally, we will suggest some possible directions for future investigations.
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