Next generation sequencing (NGS) provides a powerful tool in the field of medical genetics, allowing one to perform multi-gene analysis and to sequence entire exomes (WES), transcriptomes or genomes (WGS). The generated high-throughput data are particularly suitable for enhancing the understanding of the genetic bases of complex, multi-gene diseases, such as cancer. Among the various types of tumors, those with a familial predisposition are of great interest for the isolation of novel genes or gene variants, detectable at the germline level and involved in cancer pathogenesis. The identification of novel genetic factors would have great translational value, helping clinicians in defining risk and prevention strategies. In this regard, it is known that the majority of breast/ovarian cases with familial predisposition, lacking variants in the highly penetrant BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes (non-BRCA), remains unexplained, although several less penetrant genes (e.g., ATM, PALB2) have been identified. In this scenario, NGS technologies offer a powerful tool for the discovery of novel factors involved in familial breast/ovarian cancer. In this review, we summarize and discuss the state of the art applications of NGS gene panels, WES and WGS in the context of familial breast/ovarian cancer.

Applications of Next Generation Sequencing to the Analysis of Familial Breast/Ovarian Cancer

Zelli, Veronica;Compagnoni, Chiara;Capelli, Roberta;Di Vito Nolfi, Mauro;Alesse, Edoardo;Zazzeroni, Francesca;Tessitore, Alessandra
2020

Abstract

Next generation sequencing (NGS) provides a powerful tool in the field of medical genetics, allowing one to perform multi-gene analysis and to sequence entire exomes (WES), transcriptomes or genomes (WGS). The generated high-throughput data are particularly suitable for enhancing the understanding of the genetic bases of complex, multi-gene diseases, such as cancer. Among the various types of tumors, those with a familial predisposition are of great interest for the isolation of novel genes or gene variants, detectable at the germline level and involved in cancer pathogenesis. The identification of novel genetic factors would have great translational value, helping clinicians in defining risk and prevention strategies. In this regard, it is known that the majority of breast/ovarian cases with familial predisposition, lacking variants in the highly penetrant BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes (non-BRCA), remains unexplained, although several less penetrant genes (e.g., ATM, PALB2) have been identified. In this scenario, NGS technologies offer a powerful tool for the discovery of novel factors involved in familial breast/ovarian cancer. In this review, we summarize and discuss the state of the art applications of NGS gene panels, WES and WGS in the context of familial breast/ovarian cancer.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11697/141974
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