Background and objective: Drug Hypersensitivity Reactions (DHRs) are considered adverse effects of medications that resemble allergy symptoms. The reported positive clinical history of pediatric drug reactions is about 10%, however, after allergy investigations, only a small percent is confirmed as hypersensitivity. The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical history, allergy work-up results and sensitization profile of children and adolescents referred to our Allergy Unit for suspected DHRs. Methods: The study evaluated data related to a group of children with a positive history of drug reactions during a two-year period. The allergy work-up consisted of in vivo and in vitro tests, in accordance with the recommendations of the ENDA/EAACI guidelines. Results: Data from a group of 637 patients [348 M (54.6%); 289 F (45.4%)] were retrospectively analyzed. Beta lactams (BLs) were the most common drugs involved in the reported clinical history, followed by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs) were most frequently observed during BL treatment. The confirmation of BL hypersensitivity was higher for immediate reactions (IRs) [9.4%; 5.1% through positive skin tests (STs) and 5.5% through drug provocation test (DPT)] compared to non-immediate reactions (non-IRs) (8.1%; 2.2% through STs and 6.2% through DPT). A higher number of positive results was obtained for BLs and macrolides when the tests were performed within 12 months after the index reaction (p < 0.05). During DPTs with amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, four hypersensitivity reactions (including one anaphylaxis) occurred despite negative STs. Conclusion: Our data demonstrated that only 9.1% of patients resulted in being positive to allergy tests which is in line with the data in literature. An allergy work-up is mandatory for excluding suspected hypersensitivity.

Epidemiology and drug allergy results in children investigated in allergy unit of a tertiary-care paediatric hospital setting

Piccorossi A.;Verrotti A.;
2020-01-01

Abstract

Background and objective: Drug Hypersensitivity Reactions (DHRs) are considered adverse effects of medications that resemble allergy symptoms. The reported positive clinical history of pediatric drug reactions is about 10%, however, after allergy investigations, only a small percent is confirmed as hypersensitivity. The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical history, allergy work-up results and sensitization profile of children and adolescents referred to our Allergy Unit for suspected DHRs. Methods: The study evaluated data related to a group of children with a positive history of drug reactions during a two-year period. The allergy work-up consisted of in vivo and in vitro tests, in accordance with the recommendations of the ENDA/EAACI guidelines. Results: Data from a group of 637 patients [348 M (54.6%); 289 F (45.4%)] were retrospectively analyzed. Beta lactams (BLs) were the most common drugs involved in the reported clinical history, followed by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs) were most frequently observed during BL treatment. The confirmation of BL hypersensitivity was higher for immediate reactions (IRs) [9.4%; 5.1% through positive skin tests (STs) and 5.5% through drug provocation test (DPT)] compared to non-immediate reactions (non-IRs) (8.1%; 2.2% through STs and 6.2% through DPT). A higher number of positive results was obtained for BLs and macrolides when the tests were performed within 12 months after the index reaction (p < 0.05). During DPTs with amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, four hypersensitivity reactions (including one anaphylaxis) occurred despite negative STs. Conclusion: Our data demonstrated that only 9.1% of patients resulted in being positive to allergy tests which is in line with the data in literature. An allergy work-up is mandatory for excluding suspected hypersensitivity.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11697/143863
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