BACKGROUND: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a severe complication of systemic sclerosis (SSc), associated with a progressive elevation in pulmonary vascular resistance and subsequent right heart failure and death. Due to unspecific symptoms, the diagnosis of PAH is often delayed. On this basis, it is of great value to improve current diagnostic methods and develop new strategies for evaluating patients with suspected PAH. Interleukin-32 (IL-32) is a proinflammatory cytokine expressed in damaged vascular cells, and the present study aimed to assess if this cytokine could be a new biomarker of PAH during SSc. METHODS: The IL-32 expression was evaluated in the sera and skin samples of 18 SSc-PAH patients, 21 SSc patients without PAH, 15 patients with idiopathic PAH (iPAH) and 14 healthy controls (HCs), by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves were performed to evaluate the cut-off of IL-32 in identifying patients with PAH. Furthermore, in SSc patients, correlation analyses were performed between IL-32 sera levels and mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) evaluated by right heart catheterization (RHC) and systolic pulmonary artery pressure (sPAP), obtained by echocardiography. Additionally, the number of skin IL-32+ cells was correlated with modified Rodnan skin score (mRSS). RESULTS: In SSc-PAH patients, IL-32 sera levels were significantly higher when compared with SSc patients without PAH and patients affected by iPAH. The analysis of ROC curve showed that IL-32 sera levels above 11.12 pg/ml were able to predict patients with PAH (sensitivity = 90%, specificity = 100%). Furthermore, the IL-32 sera levels of patients with SSc correlated with both mPAP and sPAP. In the skin derived from SSc-PAH patients, the number of IL-32+ cells was significantly increased when compared with the skin derived from SSc patients without PAH, correlating with the mRSS. CONCLUSION: Our study suggested that sera determination of IL-32 may be a promising approach to evaluate the presence of PAH in SSc patients and together with longitudinal future studies could help to increase the understanding how these biomarkers mirror the vascular changes and the inflammatory process during SSc.

Interleukin-32 in systemic sclerosis, a potential new biomarker for pulmonary arterial hypertension

Di Benedetto Paola;Manzi G;Ruscitti P;Berardicurti O;Panzera N;Grazia N;Liakouli V;Cipriani P;Giacomelli R
2020

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a severe complication of systemic sclerosis (SSc), associated with a progressive elevation in pulmonary vascular resistance and subsequent right heart failure and death. Due to unspecific symptoms, the diagnosis of PAH is often delayed. On this basis, it is of great value to improve current diagnostic methods and develop new strategies for evaluating patients with suspected PAH. Interleukin-32 (IL-32) is a proinflammatory cytokine expressed in damaged vascular cells, and the present study aimed to assess if this cytokine could be a new biomarker of PAH during SSc. METHODS: The IL-32 expression was evaluated in the sera and skin samples of 18 SSc-PAH patients, 21 SSc patients without PAH, 15 patients with idiopathic PAH (iPAH) and 14 healthy controls (HCs), by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves were performed to evaluate the cut-off of IL-32 in identifying patients with PAH. Furthermore, in SSc patients, correlation analyses were performed between IL-32 sera levels and mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) evaluated by right heart catheterization (RHC) and systolic pulmonary artery pressure (sPAP), obtained by echocardiography. Additionally, the number of skin IL-32+ cells was correlated with modified Rodnan skin score (mRSS). RESULTS: In SSc-PAH patients, IL-32 sera levels were significantly higher when compared with SSc patients without PAH and patients affected by iPAH. The analysis of ROC curve showed that IL-32 sera levels above 11.12 pg/ml were able to predict patients with PAH (sensitivity = 90%, specificity = 100%). Furthermore, the IL-32 sera levels of patients with SSc correlated with both mPAP and sPAP. In the skin derived from SSc-PAH patients, the number of IL-32+ cells was significantly increased when compared with the skin derived from SSc patients without PAH, correlating with the mRSS. CONCLUSION: Our study suggested that sera determination of IL-32 may be a promising approach to evaluate the presence of PAH in SSc patients and together with longitudinal future studies could help to increase the understanding how these biomarkers mirror the vascular changes and the inflammatory process during SSc.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11697/146793
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