High blood pressure (BP) and periodontitis are two highly prevalent conditions worldwide with a significant impact on cardiovascular disease (CVD) complications. Poor periodontal health is associated with increased prevalence of hypertension and may have an influence on BP control. Risk factors such as older age, male gender, non-Caucasian ethnicity, smoking, overweight/obesity, diabetes, low socioeconomic status, and poor education have been considered the common denominators underpinning this relationship. However, recent evidence indicates that the association between periodontitis and hypertension is independent of common risk factors and may in fact be causal in nature. Low-grade systemic inflammation and redox imbalance, in particular, represent the major underlying mechanisms in this relationship. Neutrophil dysfunction, imbalance in T cell subtypes, oral-gut dysbiosis, hyperexpression of proinflammatory genes, and increased sympathetic outflow are some of the pathogenetic events involved. In addition, novel findings indicate that common genetic bases might shape the immune profile towards this clinical phenotype, offering a rationale for potential therapeutic and prevention strategies of public health interest. This review summarizes recent advances, knowledge gaps and possible future directions in the field.

Periodontitis and Hypertension: Is the Association Causal?

Del Pinto R.;Pietropaoli D.;Monaco A.;Ferri C.
2020-01-01

Abstract

High blood pressure (BP) and periodontitis are two highly prevalent conditions worldwide with a significant impact on cardiovascular disease (CVD) complications. Poor periodontal health is associated with increased prevalence of hypertension and may have an influence on BP control. Risk factors such as older age, male gender, non-Caucasian ethnicity, smoking, overweight/obesity, diabetes, low socioeconomic status, and poor education have been considered the common denominators underpinning this relationship. However, recent evidence indicates that the association between periodontitis and hypertension is independent of common risk factors and may in fact be causal in nature. Low-grade systemic inflammation and redox imbalance, in particular, represent the major underlying mechanisms in this relationship. Neutrophil dysfunction, imbalance in T cell subtypes, oral-gut dysbiosis, hyperexpression of proinflammatory genes, and increased sympathetic outflow are some of the pathogenetic events involved. In addition, novel findings indicate that common genetic bases might shape the immune profile towards this clinical phenotype, offering a rationale for potential therapeutic and prevention strategies of public health interest. This review summarizes recent advances, knowledge gaps and possible future directions in the field.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11697/147692
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