NF-κB plays a pivotal role in oncogenesis. This transcription factor is best known for promoting cancer cell survival and tumour-driving inflammation. However, several lines of evidence support a crucial role for NF-κB in governing energy homeostasis and mediating cancer metabolic reprogramming. Mitochondria are central players in many metabolic processes altered in cancer. Beyond their bioenergetic activity, several facets of mitochondria biology, including mitochondrial dynamics and oxidative stress, promote and sustain malignant transformation. Recent reports revealed an intimate connection between NF-κB pathway and the oncogenic mitochondrial functions. NF-κB can impact mitochondrial respiration and mitochondrial dynamics, and, reciprocally, mitochondria can sense stress signals and convert them into cell biological responses leading to NF-κB activation. In this review we discuss their emerging reciprocal regulation and the significance of this interplay for anticancer therapy.
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