$N$ point particles move within a billiard table made of two circular cavities connected by a straight channel. The usual billiard dynamics is modified so that it remains deterministic, phase space volumes preserving and time reversal invariant. Particles move in straight lines and are elastically reflected at the boundary of the table, as usual, but those in a channel that are moving away from a cavity invert their motion (rebound), if their number exceeds a given threshold $T$. When the geometrical parameters of the billiard table are fixed, this mechanism gives rise to non--equilibrium phase transitions in the large $N$ limit: letting $T/N$ decrease, the homogeneous particle distribution abruptly turns into a stationary inhomogeneous one. The equivalence with a modified Ehrenfest two urn model, motivated by the ergodicity of the billiard with no rebound, allows us to obtain analytical results that accurately describe the numerical billiard simulation results. Thus, a stochastic exactly solvable model that exhibits non--equilibrium phase transitions is also introduced.
|Titolo:||Deterministic reversible model of non–equilibrium phase transitions and stochastic counterpart|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2020|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|