Bacteria have a considerable ability and potential to acquire resistance against antimicrobial agents by acting diverse mechanisms such as target modification or overexpression, multidrug transporter systems, and acquisition of drug hydrolyzing enzymes. Studying the mechanisms of bacterial cell physiology is mandatory for the development of novel strategies to control the antimicrobial resistance phenomenon, as well as for the control of infections in clinics. The SOS response is a cellular DNA repair mechanism that has an essential role in the bacterial biologic process involved in resistance to antibiotics. The activation of the SOS network increases the resistance and tolerance of bacteria to stress and, as a consequence, to antimicrobial agents. Therefore, SOS can be an applicable target for the discovery of new antimicrobial drugs. In the present review, we focus on the central role of SOS response in bacterial resistance mechanisms and its potential as a new target for control of resistant pathogens.
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