The aim of the study was to evaluate the proteolytic process in Caciocavallo cheese obtained from Friesian cows fed zinc, selenium, and iodine supplementation. Thirty-six Friesian cows, balanced for parity, milk production, and days in milk, were randomly assigned to four groups. The control group (CG) was fed with a conventional feeding strategy, while the three remaining groups received a diet enriched with three different trace elements, respectively zinc (ZG), selenium (SG), and iodine (IG). At the end of the experimental period, samples of milk were collected and used to produce Caciocavallo cheese from each experimental group. Cheese samples were then analyzed after 7 and 120 days from the cheese making in order to obtain information on chemical composition and extent of the proteolytic process, evaluated through the electrophoretic analysis of caseins and the determination of volatiles profile. Both milk and cheese samples were richer in the amount of the microelement respectively used for the integration of the cattle's diet. The zymographic approach was helpful in evaluating, in milk, the proteolytic function performed by endogenous metalloenzymes specifically able to degrade gelatin and casein; this evaluation did not highlight significant differences among the analyzed samples. In cheese, the electrophoretic analysis in reducing and denaturing condition showed the marked ability of β-casein to resist the proteolytic action during ripening, whereas the dietary selenium supplementation was shown to perform a protective action against the degradation of S1 and S2 isoforms of α-casein. The analysis of the volatile profile evidenced the presence of compounds associated with proteolysis of phenylalanine and leucine. This approach showed that selenium was able to negatively influence the biochemical processes that lead to the formation of 3-methyl butanol, although the identification of the specific mechanism needs further investigation.
|Titolo:||Proteolytic volatile profile and electrophoretic analysis of casein composition in milk and cheese derived from mironutrient-fed cows|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2020|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|