Schizophrenia was first described by Emil Krapelin in the 19th century as one of the major mental illnesses causing disability worldwide. Since the introduction of chlorpromazine in 1952, strategies aimed at modifying the activity of dopamine receptors have played a major role for the treatment of schizophrenia. The introduction of atypical antipsychotics with clozapine broadened the range of potential targets for the treatment of this psychiatric disease, as they also modify the activity of the serotoninergic receptors. Interestingly, all marketed drugs for schizophrenia bind to the orthosteric binding pocket of the receptor as competitive antagonists or partial agonists. In recent years, a strong effort to develop allosteric modulators as potential therapeutic agents for schizophrenia was made, mainly for the several advantages in their use. In particular, the allosteric binding sites are topographically distinct from the orthosteric pockets, and thus drugs targeting these sites have a higher degree of receptor subunit specificity. Moreover, “pure” allosteric modulators maintain the temporal and spatial fidelity of native orthosteric ligand. Furthermore, allosteric modulators have a “ceiling effect”, and their modulatory effect is saturated above certain concentrations. In this review, we summarize the progresses made in the identification of allosteric drugs for dopamine and serotonin receptors, which could lead to a new generation of atypical antipsychotics with a better profile, especially in terms of reduced side effects.
|Titolo:||Allosteric modulators of g protein-coupled dopamine and serotonin receptors: A new class of atypical antipsychotics|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2020|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|