We show that a fully functional endocannabinoid system is present in primary human melanocytes (normal human epidermal melanocyte cells), including anandamide (AEA), 2-arachidonoylglycerol, the respective target receptors (CB1, CB2, and TRPV1), and their metabolic enzymes. We also show that at higher concentrations AEA induces normal human epidermal melanocyte apoptosis (similar to 3-fold over controls at 5 mu M) through a TRPV1-mediated pathway that increases DNA fragmentation and p53 expression. However, at lower concentrations, AEA and other CB1-binding endocannabinoids dose-dependently stimulate melanin synthesis and enhance tyrosinase gene expression and activity (similar to 3-and similar to 2-fold over controls at 1 mu M). This CB1-dependent activity was fully abolished by the selective CB1 antagonist SR141716 or by RNA interference of the receptor. CB1 signaling engaged p38 and p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinases, which in turn activated the cyclic AMP response element-binding protein and the microphthalmia-associated transcription factor. Silencing of tyrosinase or microphthalmia-associated transcription factor further demonstrated the involvement of these proteins in AEA-induced melanogenesis. In addition, CB1 activation did not engage the key regulator of skin pigmentation, cyclic AMP, showing a major difference compared with the regulation of melanogenesis by alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone through melanocortin 1 receptor.
|Titolo:||Endocannabinoids Stimulate Human Melanogenesis via Type-1 Cannabinoid Receptor|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2012|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|