A chronic inﬂammatory disease is a condition characterized by persistent inﬂammation. A number of human pathologies fall into this category, and a great deal of research has been conducted to learn more about their characteristics and underlying mechanisms. In many cases, a genetic component has been identiﬁed, but also external factors like food, smoke, or environmental pollutants can signiﬁcantly contribute to worsen their symptoms. Accumulated evidence clearly shows that chronic inﬂammatory diseases are subjected to a redox control. Here, we shall review the identity, source, regulation, and biological activity of redox molecules, to put in a better perspective their key-role in cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, atherosclerosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, and inﬂammatory bowel diseases. In addition, the impact of redox species on autoimmune disorders (rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, and celiac disease) and neurodegenerative diseases (Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and multiple sclerosis) will be discussed, along with their potential therapeutic implications as novel drugs to combat chronic inﬂammatory disorders.
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