Objective: To test the hypothesis that basal total testosterone (TT) serum levels are associated with the D'Amico risk classification at diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCA). Materials and Methods: From November 2014 to March 2018, preoperative basal levels of TT and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) were measured in 601 consecutive PCA patients who were not under androgen deprivation therapy or undergoing prior prostate surgery. Patients were classified into low (reference group), intermediate, and high risk classes according to biopsy findings. The association of TT and other clinical factors with risk classes was evaluated using a multivariate multinomial logistic regression model. Results: According to the D'Amico classification, 124 patients (24%) were low risk, 316 (52.6%) were intermediate risk, and 141 (23.4%) were high risk. Median basal TT circulating levels were significantly increased along clinical risk classes. TT along with PSA, percentage of biopsy positive cores, and tumor clinical stage were independently associated with a high risk (OR = 1.002; p = 0.022) but not with an intermediate risk of PCA when compared to the low risk class. In the intermediate-risk group, endogenous TT together with PSA were independently associated with tumor grade groups 2 (OR = 1.003; p = 0.022) and 3 (OR = 1.003; p = 0.043) compared to grade group 1 cancers. Conclusions: Basal TT levels are positively associated with the D'Amico risk classification, but the association is significant for the high-risk group compared to the low-risk group.
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