Objectives: To investigate associations of the transitional zone volume (TZV) with intraprostatic chronic inflammatory infiltrate (CII) and prostate cancer (PCa) risk in patients undergoing a first random biopsy set. Materials and Methods: The study included a homogenous population of 596 patients. The volume of the prostate and TZV were separately measured. Independent associations were investigated by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results: The median TZV was 18 ml, CII was detected in 157 cases (26.3%), and PCa was present in 292 patients (49%). TZV was the only independent clinical factor associated with CII risk (OR = 1.014). After correcting for CII (OR = 0.276; p < 0.0001), independent factors associated with PCa risk included age (OR = 1.066), prostate specific antigen (OR = 1.177), TZV (OR = 0.919), and an abnormal digital rectal exam (OR = 2.024). Conclusion: In a patient population undergoing a first random prostate biopsy set because of suspected cancer, independent associations were detected among TZV, CII, and PCa. The association between TZV and CII was direct, but the relation between TZV and PCa was inverse. The measurement of the volume of the transitional zone was a useful parameter for evaluating chronic intraprostatic inflammation and PCa risk.
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