Bone metastases (BM) are a very common complication of the most prevalent human cancers. BM are extremely painful and may be life-threatening when associated with hypercalcaemia. BM can lead to kidney failure and cardiac arrhythmias and arrest, but why and how do cancer cells decide to “switch homes” and move to bone? In this review, we will present what answers science has provided so far, with focus on the molecular mechanisms and cellular aspects of well-established findings, such as the concept of “vicious cycle” and “osteolytic” vs. “osteosclerotic” bone metastases; as well as on novel concepts, such as cellular dormancy and extracellular vesicles. At the molecular level, we will focus on hypoxia-associated factors and angiogenesis, the Wnt pathway, parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP) and chemokines. At the supramolecular/cellular level, we will discuss tumour dormancy, id est the mechanisms through which a small contingent of tumour cells coming from the primary site may be kept dormant in the endosteal niche for many years. Finally, we will present a potential role for the multimolecular mediators known as extracellular vesicles in determining bone-tropism and establishing a premetastatic niche by influencing the bone microenvironment.

Switching homes: how cancer moves to bone

Ponzetti M.
Writing – Original Draft Preparation
;
Rucci N.
2020

Abstract

Bone metastases (BM) are a very common complication of the most prevalent human cancers. BM are extremely painful and may be life-threatening when associated with hypercalcaemia. BM can lead to kidney failure and cardiac arrhythmias and arrest, but why and how do cancer cells decide to “switch homes” and move to bone? In this review, we will present what answers science has provided so far, with focus on the molecular mechanisms and cellular aspects of well-established findings, such as the concept of “vicious cycle” and “osteolytic” vs. “osteosclerotic” bone metastases; as well as on novel concepts, such as cellular dormancy and extracellular vesicles. At the molecular level, we will focus on hypoxia-associated factors and angiogenesis, the Wnt pathway, parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP) and chemokines. At the supramolecular/cellular level, we will discuss tumour dormancy, id est the mechanisms through which a small contingent of tumour cells coming from the primary site may be kept dormant in the endosteal niche for many years. Finally, we will present a potential role for the multimolecular mediators known as extracellular vesicles in determining bone-tropism and establishing a premetastatic niche by influencing the bone microenvironment.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11697/158911
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