In engineering practice, the liquefaction potential of a sandy soil is usually evaluated with a semi-empirical, stress-based approach computing a factor of safety in free field conditions, defined as the ratio between the liquefaction resistance (capacity) and the seismic demand. By so doing, an estimate of liquefaction potential is obtained, but nothing is known on the pore pressure increments (often expressed in the form of normalized pore pressure ratio ru) generated by the seismic action when the safety factor is higher than 1. Even though ru can be estimated using complex numerical analyses, it would be extremely useful to have a simplified procedure to estimate them consistent with the stress-based approach adopted to check the safety conditions. This paper proposes such a procedure with reference to both saturated and unsaturated soils, considering the latter as soils for which partial saturation has been artificially generated with some ground improvement technology to increase cyclic strength and thus tackle liquefaction risk. A simple relationship between the liquefaction free field safety factor FS, and ru(Sr) is introduced, that generalizes a previous expression proposed by Chiaradonna and Flora (Geotech Lett, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1680/jgele.19.00032) for saturated soils. The new procedure has been successfully verified against some experimental data, coming from laboratory constant amplitude cyclic tests and from centrifuge tests with irregular acceleration time histories for soils having different gradings and densities.
|Titolo:||A robust empirical model to estimate earthquake-induced excess pore water pressure in saturated and non-saturated soils|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2020|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|