Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted disease in the world. The aim of our study is to describe the differences in HPV-vaccination coverage and screening programs in WHO European Countries notably according to income levels. Multiple correspondence analysis was applied to examine the association among the following variables: Gross National Income (GNI) levels (Lower-Middle Income, LMI; Upper-Middle Income, UMI; and High Income, HI); type of CC screening program (coverage; opportunistic/organized); vaccination payment policies (free or partial or total charge); mortality rates/100 000 (≤3; >3-6; >6-9; >9); incidence rates/100 000 (≤7; >7-15; >15-21; >21). Data HPV-vaccination start (years) (2006-2008; 2009-2011; 2012-2014; >2014; no program); coverage HPV-vaccination percentage (≤25; 26-50; 51-75; >75); data screening start (years) (<1960; 1960-1980; 1981-2000; >2000); primary screening test (HPV, cytology), and screening coverage percentage (≤25; >25-50; >50-75; >75). A high income is associated with: start of screening before 1960, medium-high screening coverage, organized screening, start of vaccination in the periods 2009-2011 and 2012-2014 and high immunization coverage. On the other hand, lower-middle income is associated with: late start of vaccination and screening programs with cytology as primary test, high mortality and incidence rates and lower-medium vaccination coverage. Our results show a useful scenario for crucial support to public health decision-makers. Public health authorities should monitor the HPV-vaccinated population in order to determine more precisely the effects on short- and long-term incidence and mortality rates. In fact, the greater the vaccination coverage, the greater will be the efficacy of the program for the prevention of CC and other HPV-related diseases.
|Titolo:||HPV-vaccination and cancer cervical screening in 53 WHO European Countries: An update on prevention programs according to income level|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2019|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|