Background: Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), an inflammation-associated enzyme, has been implicated in tumorigenesis and progression of glioblastoma (GBM). The poor survival of GBM was mainly associated with the presence of glioma stem cells (GSC) and the markedly inflammatory microenvironment. To further explore the involvement of COX-2 in glioma biology, the effects of NS398, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, were evaluated on GSC derived from COX-2 expressing GBM cell lines, i.e., U87MG and T98G, in terms of neurospheres' growth, autophagy, and extracellular vesicle (EV) release. Methods: Neurospheres' growth and morphology were evaluated by optical and scanning electron microscopy. Autophagy was measured by staining acidic vesicular organelles. Extracellular vesicles (EV), released from neurospheres, were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. The autophagic proteins Beclin-1 and LC3B, as well as the EV markers CD63 and CD81, were analyzed by western blotting. The scratch assay test was used to evaluate the NS398 influence on GBM cell migration. Results: Both cell lines were strongly influenced by NS398 exposure, as showed by morphological changes, reduced growth rate, and appearance of autophagy. Furthermore, the inhibitor led to a functional change of EV released by neurospheres. Indeed, EV secreted by NS398-treated GSC, but not those from control cells, were able to significantly inhibit adherent U87MG and T98G cell migration and induced autophagy in recipient cells, thus leading to effects quite similar to those directly caused by NS398 in the same cells. Conclusion: Despite the intrinsic diversity and individual genetic features of U87MG and T98G, comparable effects were exerted by the COX-2 inhibitor NS398 on both GBM cell lines. Overall, our findings support the crucial role of the inflammatory-associated COX-2/PGE2 system in glioma and glioma stem cell biology.
|Titolo:||Biological effects of selective COX-2 inhibitor NS398 on human glioblastoma cell lines|
CINQUE, BENEDETTA (Corresponding)
|Data di pubblicazione:||2020|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.2 Recensione in rivista|