The relationship between arterial hypertension and cognitive decline, two among the conditions with higher prevalence in the elderly population, has gained significant interest, in the scientific community, during the last few years, stemming from the numerous epidemiologic, experimental, and therapeutic evidences suggesting a noncasual correlation between the two conditions. In fact, the brain, for its substantial metabolic and functional complexity, is more susceptible to the harmful effect of high blood pressure than the other target organs. Chronic ischaemic impairment, microvascular damage, and neurodegenerative phenomena are the likely pathophysiologic basis for the correlation between hypertension and cognitive decline. Vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease, the two prominent forms of senile dementia, seem to represent the end result of the chronic exposure, during the lifetime, to harmful stimuli, among which the most relevant are the cardiovascular risk factors, at least from an epidemiological perspective. Evidences from interventional studies, although limited, seems to support the concept that to limit the spread of senile dementia, the early optimization of the control of cardiovascular risk factors, first and foremost hypertension, is crucial. The occurrence of a variable degree of mental decline, till overt dementia, in the hypertensive patient, represents the final step of a pathophysiologic process that began many years before. There is, then, the clear opportunity to control the pathophysiologic mechanisms leading to cognitive decline in the hypertensive patient.

Is there a relationship between blood pressure values and dementia?

Desideri G.
;
2020

Abstract

The relationship between arterial hypertension and cognitive decline, two among the conditions with higher prevalence in the elderly population, has gained significant interest, in the scientific community, during the last few years, stemming from the numerous epidemiologic, experimental, and therapeutic evidences suggesting a noncasual correlation between the two conditions. In fact, the brain, for its substantial metabolic and functional complexity, is more susceptible to the harmful effect of high blood pressure than the other target organs. Chronic ischaemic impairment, microvascular damage, and neurodegenerative phenomena are the likely pathophysiologic basis for the correlation between hypertension and cognitive decline. Vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease, the two prominent forms of senile dementia, seem to represent the end result of the chronic exposure, during the lifetime, to harmful stimuli, among which the most relevant are the cardiovascular risk factors, at least from an epidemiological perspective. Evidences from interventional studies, although limited, seems to support the concept that to limit the spread of senile dementia, the early optimization of the control of cardiovascular risk factors, first and foremost hypertension, is crucial. The occurrence of a variable degree of mental decline, till overt dementia, in the hypertensive patient, represents the final step of a pathophysiologic process that began many years before. There is, then, the clear opportunity to control the pathophysiologic mechanisms leading to cognitive decline in the hypertensive patient.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11697/163096
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