A challenging and interesting issue for the solution of large electromagnetic problems is the efficient, sufficiently accurate modeling of the broadband skin-effect loss for conducting planes and 3-D shapes. The inclusion of such models in an electromagnetic (EM) solver can be very costly in compute time and memory requirements. These issues are particularly important for the class of signal, power, and noise integrity (NI) problems. In this paper, we concentrate on partial element equivalent circuit (PEEC)-type methods which are suitable for the solution of this class of problems. Progress has been made recently in the design of skin-effect models. The difficult issues are broadband frequency-domain or time-domain problems. These models are considered in this paper. We present several solution methods, and we compare results obtained with these approaches.
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