With the demographic shift toward advanced ages, it is imperative to understand the biological mechanisms behind common, disabling age-related diseases such as cognitive impairment in its mild form to overt dementia. Hypertension, a major cardiovascular risk factor, is epidemiologically linked to vascular and Alzheimer-type dementia, with possible mechanisms being atherosclerotic macro- and microvascular damage leading to neuronal cell death, as well as proinflammatory events responsible for neurodegeneration. Nevertheless, there is currently a knowledge gap as to which population to target, what the diagnostics test, and how to manage early pathogenic events in order to prevent such a dramatic and disabling condition. While clinical trials data support the benefit of active BP control with antihypertensive medications on the risk of future cognitive impairment, hypotension appears to be related to accelerated cognitive decline in both the fit and the cognitively frail elderly. Dedicated, technologically advanced studies assessing the relation of BP with dementia are needed to clarify the pathophysiological mechanisms in the association before a tailored preventive, diagnostic, and therapeutic approach to one of the most widespread modern medical challenges becomes a reality.

Blood Pressure Profiles and Cognitive Function from Adulthood to Old Age: Chasing a Golden Middle Way?

Del Pinto, Rita;Grassi, Davide;Carubbi, Francesco;Ferri, Claudio;Desideri, Giovambattista
2021

Abstract

With the demographic shift toward advanced ages, it is imperative to understand the biological mechanisms behind common, disabling age-related diseases such as cognitive impairment in its mild form to overt dementia. Hypertension, a major cardiovascular risk factor, is epidemiologically linked to vascular and Alzheimer-type dementia, with possible mechanisms being atherosclerotic macro- and microvascular damage leading to neuronal cell death, as well as proinflammatory events responsible for neurodegeneration. Nevertheless, there is currently a knowledge gap as to which population to target, what the diagnostics test, and how to manage early pathogenic events in order to prevent such a dramatic and disabling condition. While clinical trials data support the benefit of active BP control with antihypertensive medications on the risk of future cognitive impairment, hypotension appears to be related to accelerated cognitive decline in both the fit and the cognitively frail elderly. Dedicated, technologically advanced studies assessing the relation of BP with dementia are needed to clarify the pathophysiological mechanisms in the association before a tailored preventive, diagnostic, and therapeutic approach to one of the most widespread modern medical challenges becomes a reality.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11697/169391
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