Diclofenac (DCF) is one of the most widespread pharmaceutical compounds found in freshwaters as a pseudo-persistent pollutant due to its continuous release from point and diffuse sources, being its removal in Wastewater Treatment Plants incomplete. Moreover, DCF is particularly persistent in interstitial habitats and potentially toxic for the species that spend their whole life cycle among the same sediment grains. This study is aimed at offering a first contribution to the assessment of DCF effects on freshwater invertebrate species living in the interstitial habitats of springs, rivers, lakes and groundwaters. The Crustacea Copepoda are one of the main components of the freshwater interstitial communities, with the primacy taken by the worm-like and small-sized harpacticoids. A sub-lethal concentration of 50 μg L-1 DCF significantly affected six out of the eight behavior parameters of the burrower/interstitial crustacean harpacticoid Bryocamptus pygmaeus recorded by video tracking analysis. DCF exposure reduced swimming speed, swimming activity, exploration ability and thigmotaxis, and increased swimming path tortuosity. The biochemical approach revealed a reduced level of the mitochondrial superoxide dismutase 2 in individuals exposed to DCF. It could be explained by a decline in mitochondrial performance or by a reduced number of functional mitochondria. Since mitochondrial dysfunction may determine ATP reduction, it comes that less energy is produced for maintaining the cell functions of the DCF-exposed individuals. In addition, the increasing energy demand for the detoxification process further contributes to decrease the total energetic budget allocated for other physiological activities. These observations can explain the changes we have observed in the swimming behavior of the copepod B. pygmaeus.
|Titolo:||Effects of diclofenac on the swimming behavior and antioxidant enzyme activities of the freshwater interstitial crustacean Bryocamptus pygmaeus (Crustacea, Harpacticoida)|
GALASSI, Diana Maria Paola (Corresponding)
|Data di pubblicazione:||2021|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|