Background: In the last years immunotherapy has revolutionized the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) not supported by a driver mutation. Immunotherapy related adverse events (irAEs) have a unique toxicity profiles distinct from the toxicities of classical chemotherapy treatment relating to their mechanism of action. We analyzed some serious and uncommon life-threatening irAEs, needing a change in the therapeutic strategy. Method: Between October 2018 and October 2020, 63 NSCLC patients underwent immunotherapy. Thirty-eight patients underwent first-line Pembrolizumab, 200 mg every 21 days (Group A). Twenty patients were treated in second line with Pembrolizumab 200 mg every 21 days or Nivolumab 240 mg every 14 days or Atezolizumab 800 mg every 14 days (Group B). Five stage III patients treated after radio chemotherapy with Durvalumab 1500 mg every 14 days (Group C). Results: We experienced: a) 2 bowel perforations (3.2%), necessitating Hartmann's resection. Only one of the two patients restored immunotherapy; b) 1 chronic renal insufficiency (1.6%, creatinine up to 8 mg/dL) and 2 severe hypertransaminasemias (3.2%, up to 65 U/L), requiring the immediate and definitive interruption of ICIs; c) 2 pericardial effusions (3.2%), of which one needed subxiphoid pericardiocentesis for cardiac tamponade. Patient restored immunotherapy after resolution of the acute event. Conclusions: Immunotherapy include monoclonal antibodies reducing the suppression of effector T cells and improving the tumor-specific immune responses. Most common irAEs are evident in mild and reversible form, but sometimes life-threatening irEAs show up. Therefore, further clinical trials needed to increase knowledge of drugs and prevent unexpected irAEs.

NSCLC Immunotherapy and Related Rare Toxicities: A Monocentric Real-Life Experience

Divisi, Duilio;De Vico, Andrea;Irelli, Azzurra;Aielli, Federica;
2021

Abstract

Background: In the last years immunotherapy has revolutionized the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) not supported by a driver mutation. Immunotherapy related adverse events (irAEs) have a unique toxicity profiles distinct from the toxicities of classical chemotherapy treatment relating to their mechanism of action. We analyzed some serious and uncommon life-threatening irAEs, needing a change in the therapeutic strategy. Method: Between October 2018 and October 2020, 63 NSCLC patients underwent immunotherapy. Thirty-eight patients underwent first-line Pembrolizumab, 200 mg every 21 days (Group A). Twenty patients were treated in second line with Pembrolizumab 200 mg every 21 days or Nivolumab 240 mg every 14 days or Atezolizumab 800 mg every 14 days (Group B). Five stage III patients treated after radio chemotherapy with Durvalumab 1500 mg every 14 days (Group C). Results: We experienced: a) 2 bowel perforations (3.2%), necessitating Hartmann's resection. Only one of the two patients restored immunotherapy; b) 1 chronic renal insufficiency (1.6%, creatinine up to 8 mg/dL) and 2 severe hypertransaminasemias (3.2%, up to 65 U/L), requiring the immediate and definitive interruption of ICIs; c) 2 pericardial effusions (3.2%), of which one needed subxiphoid pericardiocentesis for cardiac tamponade. Patient restored immunotherapy after resolution of the acute event. Conclusions: Immunotherapy include monoclonal antibodies reducing the suppression of effector T cells and improving the tumor-specific immune responses. Most common irAEs are evident in mild and reversible form, but sometimes life-threatening irEAs show up. Therefore, further clinical trials needed to increase knowledge of drugs and prevent unexpected irAEs.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11697/173921
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