Carbon nano-onions (CNOs), in their spherical or polyhedral forms, represent an important class of nanomaterials, due to their peculiar physical and electrochemical properties. Among the different methods of production, arc discharge between graphite electrodes sustained by deionized water is one of the most promising to obtain good quality CNOs in gram quantities. We applied the method with the aim to optimize the production of CNOs, using an innovative experimental arrangement. The discharges generate dispersed nanomaterials and a black hard cathodic deposit, which were studied by transmission electron microscopy-high-resolution TEM, scanning electron microscopy, Raman, thermogravimetric analysis and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. A simple mechanical grinding of the deposits permitted us to obtain turbostratic polyhedral CNOs that exhibited higher stability towards burning in air, compared to CNOs found in water. We propose a mechanism for the formation of the CNOs present in the deposit, in which the crystallization is driven by a strong temperature gradient existing close to the cathode surface at the beginning of the process, and subsequently close to the deposit surface whenever it is growing.

Selective synthesis of turbostratic polyhedral carbon nano-onions by arc discharge in water

Aloise A.;
2018

Abstract

Carbon nano-onions (CNOs), in their spherical or polyhedral forms, represent an important class of nanomaterials, due to their peculiar physical and electrochemical properties. Among the different methods of production, arc discharge between graphite electrodes sustained by deionized water is one of the most promising to obtain good quality CNOs in gram quantities. We applied the method with the aim to optimize the production of CNOs, using an innovative experimental arrangement. The discharges generate dispersed nanomaterials and a black hard cathodic deposit, which were studied by transmission electron microscopy-high-resolution TEM, scanning electron microscopy, Raman, thermogravimetric analysis and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. A simple mechanical grinding of the deposits permitted us to obtain turbostratic polyhedral CNOs that exhibited higher stability towards burning in air, compared to CNOs found in water. We propose a mechanism for the formation of the CNOs present in the deposit, in which the crystallization is driven by a strong temperature gradient existing close to the cathode surface at the beginning of the process, and subsequently close to the deposit surface whenever it is growing.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11697/176570
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