Mitochondria are multifunctional subcellular organelles essential for cellular energy homeostasis and apoptotic cell death. It is, therefore, crucial to maintain mitochondrial fitness. Mitophagy, the selective removal of dysfunctional mitochondria by autophagy, is critical for regulating mitochondrial quality control in many physiological processes, including cell development and differentiation. On the other hand, both impaired and excessive mitophagy are involved in the pathogenesis of different ageing-associated diseases such as neurodegeneration, cancer, myocardial injury, liver disease, sarcopenia and diabetes. The best-characterized mitophagy pathway is the PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1)/Parkin-dependent pathway. However, other Parkin-independent pathways are also reported to mediate the tethering of mitochondria to the autophagy apparatuses, directly activating mitophagy (mitophagy receptors and other E3 ligases). In addition, the existence of molecular mechanisms other than PINK1-mediated phosphorylation for Parkin activation was proposed. The adenosine5′-monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is emerging as a key player in mitochondrial metabolism and mitophagy. Beyond its involvement in mitochondrial fission and autophagosomal engulfment, its interplay with the PINK1–Parkin pathway is also reported. Here, we review the recent advances in elucidating the canonical molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways that regulate mitophagy, focusing on the early role and spatial specificity of the AMPK/ULK1 axis.

Mitophagy: Molecular mechanisms, new concepts on parkin activation and the emerging role of ampk/ulk1 axis

Iorio R.;Celenza G.;Petricca S.
2022

Abstract

Mitochondria are multifunctional subcellular organelles essential for cellular energy homeostasis and apoptotic cell death. It is, therefore, crucial to maintain mitochondrial fitness. Mitophagy, the selective removal of dysfunctional mitochondria by autophagy, is critical for regulating mitochondrial quality control in many physiological processes, including cell development and differentiation. On the other hand, both impaired and excessive mitophagy are involved in the pathogenesis of different ageing-associated diseases such as neurodegeneration, cancer, myocardial injury, liver disease, sarcopenia and diabetes. The best-characterized mitophagy pathway is the PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1)/Parkin-dependent pathway. However, other Parkin-independent pathways are also reported to mediate the tethering of mitochondria to the autophagy apparatuses, directly activating mitophagy (mitophagy receptors and other E3 ligases). In addition, the existence of molecular mechanisms other than PINK1-mediated phosphorylation for Parkin activation was proposed. The adenosine5′-monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is emerging as a key player in mitochondrial metabolism and mitophagy. Beyond its involvement in mitochondrial fission and autophagosomal engulfment, its interplay with the PINK1–Parkin pathway is also reported. Here, we review the recent advances in elucidating the canonical molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways that regulate mitophagy, focusing on the early role and spatial specificity of the AMPK/ULK1 axis.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11697/177435
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