TMZ-resistance remains a main limitation in glioblastoma (GBM) treatment. TMZ is an alkylating agent whose cytotoxicity is modulated by O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), whose expression is determined by MGMT gene promoter methylation status. The inflammatory marker COX-2 has been implicated in GBM tumorigenesis, progression, and stemness. COX-2 inhibitors are considered a GBM add-on treatment due to their ability to increase TMZ-sensitivity. We investigated the effect of TMZ on COX-2 expression in GBM cell lines showing different COX-2 levels and TMZ sensitivity (T98G and U251MG). β-catenin, MGMT, and SOX-2 expression was analyzed. The effects of NS398, COX-2 inhibitor, alone or TMZ-combined, were studied evaluating cell proliferation by the IncuCyte® system, cell cycle/apoptosis, and clonogenic potential. COX-2, β-catenin, MGMT, and SOX-2 expression was evaluated by RT-PCR, Western blotting, and immunofluorescence and PGE2 by ELISA. Our findings, sustaining the role of COX-2/PGE2 system in TMZ-resistance of GBM, show, for the first time, a relevant, dose-dependent up-regulation of COX-2 expression and activity in TMZ-treated T98G that, in turn, correlated with chemoresistance. Similarly, all the COX-2-dependent signaling pathways involved in TMZ-resistance also resulted in being up-modulated after treatment with TMZ. NS398+TMZ was able to reduce cell proliferation and induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Moreover, NS398+TMZ counteracted the resistance in T98G preventing the TMZ-induced COX-2, β-catenin, MGMT, and SOX-2 up-regulation. View Full-Text

Up-Regulation of Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) Expression by Temozolomide (TMZ) in Human Glioblastoma (GBM) Cell Lines

Francesca Lombardi;Francesca Rosaria Augello;Serena Artone;Maria Grazia Cifone;Benedetta Cinque
;
Paola Palumbo.
2022

Abstract

TMZ-resistance remains a main limitation in glioblastoma (GBM) treatment. TMZ is an alkylating agent whose cytotoxicity is modulated by O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), whose expression is determined by MGMT gene promoter methylation status. The inflammatory marker COX-2 has been implicated in GBM tumorigenesis, progression, and stemness. COX-2 inhibitors are considered a GBM add-on treatment due to their ability to increase TMZ-sensitivity. We investigated the effect of TMZ on COX-2 expression in GBM cell lines showing different COX-2 levels and TMZ sensitivity (T98G and U251MG). β-catenin, MGMT, and SOX-2 expression was analyzed. The effects of NS398, COX-2 inhibitor, alone or TMZ-combined, were studied evaluating cell proliferation by the IncuCyte® system, cell cycle/apoptosis, and clonogenic potential. COX-2, β-catenin, MGMT, and SOX-2 expression was evaluated by RT-PCR, Western blotting, and immunofluorescence and PGE2 by ELISA. Our findings, sustaining the role of COX-2/PGE2 system in TMZ-resistance of GBM, show, for the first time, a relevant, dose-dependent up-regulation of COX-2 expression and activity in TMZ-treated T98G that, in turn, correlated with chemoresistance. Similarly, all the COX-2-dependent signaling pathways involved in TMZ-resistance also resulted in being up-modulated after treatment with TMZ. NS398+TMZ was able to reduce cell proliferation and induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Moreover, NS398+TMZ counteracted the resistance in T98G preventing the TMZ-induced COX-2, β-catenin, MGMT, and SOX-2 up-regulation. View Full-Text
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11697/178153
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