Tuber mesentericum is an edible European black truffle, apparently easy to recognize, but showing a high degree of genetic variability. In this study, we performed an integrative taxonomic assessment of the T. mesentericum complex, combining a multilocus phylogeographic approach with morphological analyses, and including authentic specimens of Vittadini, and Berkeley and Broome. We performed maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses, based on single and concatenated gene datasets (ITS rDNA, β-tubulin, elongation factor 1-α), and including all available sequences from previous studies. Phylogenetic analyses consistently recovered three reciprocally monophyletic and well-supported clades: clade I, with a wide range across Europe; clade II, specimens collected mainly in the Iberian, Italian, and Balkan peninsulas; and clade III, specimens collected almost exclusively in central Italy. Genetic distance between clades ranged from 10.4% to 13.1% at the ITS region. We also designed new primer pairs specific for each phylogenetic lineage. Morphology of spores, asci, and peridium were investigated on specimens representing the three lineages. Macro-and micromorphological analyses of ascomata revealed only a few, but not diagnostic, differences between the three phylogenetic lineages, thus, confirming that they are morphologically cryptic. By studying authentic specimens of Vittadini, and Berkeley and Broome, it was possible to identify the three clades as T. mesentericum, Tuber bituminatum, and Tuber suave sp. nov., and to designate an epitype for T. mesentericum s.s. and a lectotype for T. bituminatum. Future investigations on volatile organic compound (VOC) composition are needed to define the aroma repertoires in this species complex.

Multilocus phylogeography of the tuber mesentericum complex unearths three highly divergent cryptic species

Leonardi M.;Salvi D.;Iotti M.
;
Pacioni G.
2021

Abstract

Tuber mesentericum is an edible European black truffle, apparently easy to recognize, but showing a high degree of genetic variability. In this study, we performed an integrative taxonomic assessment of the T. mesentericum complex, combining a multilocus phylogeographic approach with morphological analyses, and including authentic specimens of Vittadini, and Berkeley and Broome. We performed maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses, based on single and concatenated gene datasets (ITS rDNA, β-tubulin, elongation factor 1-α), and including all available sequences from previous studies. Phylogenetic analyses consistently recovered three reciprocally monophyletic and well-supported clades: clade I, with a wide range across Europe; clade II, specimens collected mainly in the Iberian, Italian, and Balkan peninsulas; and clade III, specimens collected almost exclusively in central Italy. Genetic distance between clades ranged from 10.4% to 13.1% at the ITS region. We also designed new primer pairs specific for each phylogenetic lineage. Morphology of spores, asci, and peridium were investigated on specimens representing the three lineages. Macro-and micromorphological analyses of ascomata revealed only a few, but not diagnostic, differences between the three phylogenetic lineages, thus, confirming that they are morphologically cryptic. By studying authentic specimens of Vittadini, and Berkeley and Broome, it was possible to identify the three clades as T. mesentericum, Tuber bituminatum, and Tuber suave sp. nov., and to designate an epitype for T. mesentericum s.s. and a lectotype for T. bituminatum. Future investigations on volatile organic compound (VOC) composition are needed to define the aroma repertoires in this species complex.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11697/178229
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