The aim of this work is to validate the China Seismo-Electromagnetic Satellite 01 (CSES-01) Electric Field Detector (EFD) measurements through the analysis of the instrument response to various inputs: (a) geomagnetic field variations, (b) plasma density depletions, and (c) electromagnetic signals from natural and artificial sources such as Schumann resonance and VLF (Very Low Frequency) antennas. The knowledge of the geomagnetic induced electric field vs × B (where vs is the satellite speed and B and the local magnetic field), and the plasma variations effect, described by the Orbit Motion Limited (OML) theory, are key parameters to determine the expected theoretical values of the EFD sensors potentials data. Based on the CSES on-board measurements of plasma parameters and geomagnetic field, a direct quantitative validation is presented. In addition, the electromagnetic signals detection capability is checked but only qualitatively confirmed, since the ionospheric complexity does not allow an accurate theoretical computation of waves modulation. The quantitative comparison highlights the very good agreement between observed and theoretical potentials values during average condition. Conversely, in case of strong electric fields, the OML theory shows partial inability in reproducing the actual space plasma conditions resulting in a reduced theoretical values reliability. Finally, both natural and artificial electromagnetic signals are satisfactorily identified showing a reliable sensitivity in different frequency bands.
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