Background: Acute T-cell mediated rejection (aTCMR) is still an issue in kidney transplantation, for it is associated with chronic rejection, graft loss, and overall worse outcomes. For these reasons, a standard non-invasive molecular tool to detect is desirable to offer a simpler monitoring of kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). The purpose of our study was to examine, in peripheral blood before and after transplantation, the expression patterns of regulatory T cell (Treg)-related genes: the forkhead box P3 (FOXP3) and the two CTLA-4 isoforms (full-length and soluble) to predict acute rejection onset, de novo donor-specific antibodies (DSA) development and renal dysfunction 1 year after transplantation. Methods: We profiled by using a relative quantification analysis (qRT-PCR) circulating mRNA levels of these biomarkers in peripheral blood of 89 KTRs within the first post-transplant year (at baseline and 15, 60 and 365 days, and when possible at the acute rejection) and compared also the results with 24 healthy controls. Results: The three mRNA levels drastically reduced 15 days after transplantation and gradually recovered at 1 year in comparison with baseline, with very low levels at the time of aTCMR for FOXP3 (RQ = 0.445, IQR = 0.086–1.264, p = 0.040), maybe for the pro-apoptotic role of FOXP3 during inflammation. A multivariate Cox regression analysis evidenced a significant relation between aTCMR onset and thymoglobuline induction (HR = 6.749 p = 0.041), everolimus use (HR = 7.017, p = 0.007) and an increased risk from the solCTLA-4 expression at 15 days, mainly considering recipients treated with Mycophelolic acid (HR = 13.94 p = 0.038, 95%CI:1.157–167.87). Besides, solCTLA-4 also predisposed to graft dysfunction (eGFR< 60 mL/min/1.73m2) at 1 year (AOR = 3.683, 95%CI = 1.145–11.845, p = 0.029). On the other hand, pre-transplant solCTLA-4 levels showed a protective association with de novo DSAs development (HR = 0.189, 95%CI = 0.078–0.459, p < 0.001). Conclusions: mRNA levels of Treg-associated genes, mainly for solCTLA-4, in peripheral blood could put forward as candidate non-invasive biomarkers of cellular and humoral alloreactivity in clinical transplantation and might help shape immunosuppression, tailor monitoring and achieve better long-term outcomes of kidney transplantation in the wake of “precision medicine”.

Longitudinal monitoring of mRNA levels of regulatory T cell biomarkers by using non-invasive strategies to predict outcome in renal transplantation

Iesari S.;Ciavatta S.;Panarese A.;Tessitore A.;Papola F.;Pisani F.
2022

Abstract

Background: Acute T-cell mediated rejection (aTCMR) is still an issue in kidney transplantation, for it is associated with chronic rejection, graft loss, and overall worse outcomes. For these reasons, a standard non-invasive molecular tool to detect is desirable to offer a simpler monitoring of kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). The purpose of our study was to examine, in peripheral blood before and after transplantation, the expression patterns of regulatory T cell (Treg)-related genes: the forkhead box P3 (FOXP3) and the two CTLA-4 isoforms (full-length and soluble) to predict acute rejection onset, de novo donor-specific antibodies (DSA) development and renal dysfunction 1 year after transplantation. Methods: We profiled by using a relative quantification analysis (qRT-PCR) circulating mRNA levels of these biomarkers in peripheral blood of 89 KTRs within the first post-transplant year (at baseline and 15, 60 and 365 days, and when possible at the acute rejection) and compared also the results with 24 healthy controls. Results: The three mRNA levels drastically reduced 15 days after transplantation and gradually recovered at 1 year in comparison with baseline, with very low levels at the time of aTCMR for FOXP3 (RQ = 0.445, IQR = 0.086–1.264, p = 0.040), maybe for the pro-apoptotic role of FOXP3 during inflammation. A multivariate Cox regression analysis evidenced a significant relation between aTCMR onset and thymoglobuline induction (HR = 6.749 p = 0.041), everolimus use (HR = 7.017, p = 0.007) and an increased risk from the solCTLA-4 expression at 15 days, mainly considering recipients treated with Mycophelolic acid (HR = 13.94 p = 0.038, 95%CI:1.157–167.87). Besides, solCTLA-4 also predisposed to graft dysfunction (eGFR< 60 mL/min/1.73m2) at 1 year (AOR = 3.683, 95%CI = 1.145–11.845, p = 0.029). On the other hand, pre-transplant solCTLA-4 levels showed a protective association with de novo DSAs development (HR = 0.189, 95%CI = 0.078–0.459, p < 0.001). Conclusions: mRNA levels of Treg-associated genes, mainly for solCTLA-4, in peripheral blood could put forward as candidate non-invasive biomarkers of cellular and humoral alloreactivity in clinical transplantation and might help shape immunosuppression, tailor monitoring and achieve better long-term outcomes of kidney transplantation in the wake of “precision medicine”.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11697/180152
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