A major challenge in cross-linking/mass spectrometry (MS) is targeting carboxyl functions in proteins under physiological conditions that do not disturb the protein's conformation. Cross-linking of glutamic acid and aspartic acid residues in proteins will greatly expand the scope of structural mass spectrometry. We discovered that carboxyl-reactive cross-linkers have already been employed for many years in cross-linking/MS studies, yet in a completely different context. Diazirine-based cross-linkers, such as photomethionine and succinimidyldiazirine cross-linkers, are currently considered to react nonspecifically upon UV-A photoactivation with all 20 proteinogenic amino acids through a reactive carbene that inserts mainly into C-H bonds. We discovered that the cross-linking capability of diazirines based on X-H (X = C, N, O) insertion is in fact only the tip of the iceberg. Diazirines isomerize to linear diazo compounds that can react with carboxylic acids to yield esters. On top of that, the resulting cross-linked products are MS-cleavable allowing an automated analysis of cross-links via customized software tools. Therefore, diazirines open an entirely new route for photo-cross-linking of carboxylic acids. Previous cross-linking studies using diazirines have to be revisited in the light of these findings.

Carboxyl-Photo-Reactive MS-Cleavable Cross-Linkers: Unveiling a Hidden Aspect of Diazirine-Based Reagents

Iacobucci C.;
2018

Abstract

A major challenge in cross-linking/mass spectrometry (MS) is targeting carboxyl functions in proteins under physiological conditions that do not disturb the protein's conformation. Cross-linking of glutamic acid and aspartic acid residues in proteins will greatly expand the scope of structural mass spectrometry. We discovered that carboxyl-reactive cross-linkers have already been employed for many years in cross-linking/MS studies, yet in a completely different context. Diazirine-based cross-linkers, such as photomethionine and succinimidyldiazirine cross-linkers, are currently considered to react nonspecifically upon UV-A photoactivation with all 20 proteinogenic amino acids through a reactive carbene that inserts mainly into C-H bonds. We discovered that the cross-linking capability of diazirines based on X-H (X = C, N, O) insertion is in fact only the tip of the iceberg. Diazirines isomerize to linear diazo compounds that can react with carboxylic acids to yield esters. On top of that, the resulting cross-linked products are MS-cleavable allowing an automated analysis of cross-links via customized software tools. Therefore, diazirines open an entirely new route for photo-cross-linking of carboxylic acids. Previous cross-linking studies using diazirines have to be revisited in the light of these findings.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11697/182216
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