Melanomas arising at uncommon sites include a group of lesions related to unusual localizations in specific ethnic groups. The rarity of the disease often represents a limit to the participation of patients in specific trials. However, this peculiar genetic scenario has important therapeutic implications regarding new oncologic therapies. The aim of this article is to review the clinical features, somatic alterations and therapeutic options for melanomas of uncommon sites. They can be classified as cutaneous and mucosal lesions affecting the nail apparatus, palms/soles, oral mucosa, genital area and scalp. The prognosis may be worse compared to melanomas of other districts, and a prompt diagnosis may dramatically influence the outcome. Dermatologists and oncologists should therefore distinguish this melanoma subgroup in terms of surgical intervention and medical treatment. Due to the lack of mutations in genes usually found in cutaneous melanomas, the discovery of novel targets is required to develop new strategies and to change the prognosis of non-responders or wild-type patients.
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