Magnetic Resonance–guided Focused Ultrasound (MRgFUS) represents an effective micro-lesioning approach to target pharmaco-resistant tremor, mostly in patients afflicted by essential tremor (ET) and/or Parkinson’s disease (PD). So far, experimental protocols are verifying the clinical extension to other facets of the movement disorder galaxy (i.e., internal pallidus for disabling dyskinesias). Aside from those neurosurgical options, one of the most intriguing opportunities of this technique relies on its capability to remedy the impermeability of blood–brain barrier (BBB). Temporary BBB opening through low-intensity focused ultrasound turned out to be safe and feasible in patients with PD, Alzheimer’s disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. As a mere consequence of the procedures, some groups described even reversible but significant mild cognitive amelioration, up to hippocampal neurogenesis partially associated to the increased of endogenous brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). A further development elevates MRgFUS to the status of therapeutic tool for drug delivery of putative neurorestorative therapies. Since 2012, FUS-assisted intravenous administration of BDNF or neurturin allowed hippocampal or striatal delivery. Experimental studies emphasized synergistic modalities. In a rodent model for Huntington’s disease, engineered liposomes can carry glial cell line–derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) plasmid DNA (GDNFp) to form a GDNFp-liposome (GDNFp-LPs) complex through pulsed FUS exposures with microbubbles; in a subacute MPTP-PD model, the combination of intravenous administration of neurotrophic factors (either through protein or gene delivery) plus FUS did curb nigrostriatal degeneration. Here, we explore these arguments, focusing on the current, translational application of neurotrophins in neurodegenerative diseases.
|Titolo:||Neurotrophins as Therapeutic Agents for Parkinson’s Disease; New Chances From Focused Ultrasound?|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2022|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|